Calendula officinalis L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) inversion in the Asteraceae has been cited as a classic example of using genomic rearrangements for defining major lineages of plants. We further characterize cpDNA inversions in the Asteraceae using extensive sequence comparisons among 56 species, including representatives of all major clades of the family and related families. We det. the boundaries of the 22-kb (now known as 22.8 kb) inversion that defines a major split within the Asteraceae, and in the process, we characterize the second and a new, smaller 3.3-kb inversion that occurs at one end of the larger inversion. One end point of the smaller inversion is upstream of the trnE-UUC gene, and the other end point is located between the trnC-GCA and rpoB genes. Although a diverse sampling of Asteraceae experienced substantial length variation and base substitution during the long evolutionary history subsequent to the inversion events, the precise locations of the inversion end points are identified using comparative sequence alignments in the inversion regions. The phylogenetic distribution of two inversions is identical among the members of Asteraceae, suggesting that the inversion events likely occurred simultaneously or within a short time period shortly after the origin of the family. Ests. of divergence times based on ndhF and rbcL sequences suggest that two inversions originated during the late Eocene (38-42 MYA). The divergence time ests. also suggest that the Asteraceae originated in the mid Eocene (42-47 MYA). 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L. was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils.  Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated.  Under these chem. enhanced treatments, EDTA was obsd. to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth.  However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05).  Most of the chem. treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concns., with the root Cd concn. being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concn.  Almost all of the investigated chem. treatments contg. SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05).  The application of EGTA alone led to an obsd. total Cd increase of up to 217%.  This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chem. enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

2) In the study, the accumulation of secondary metabolites present in Calendula officinalis L. flowers with importance in therapeutics was examd., after the treatment with some substances considered being mutagens.  The effect of substances applied at different concns. and different times of action was studied, qual. and quant., considering various methanol exts., obtained from the inflorescenses of Calendula officinalis L, which contained polyphenolic fractions that were quant. assessed.  In addn., dichloromethane exts. were used for qual. anal., for sterols and triterpenic compds.  The qual. and quant. characterization of the exts. was made by HPLC, and the three classes of compds., namely flavonoids, polyphenolic acids, triterpenic compds., important for their pharmacol. effects were analyzed.  To highlight of the spots on chromatograms, specific reagents were used, and then they were examd. in VIS, and after the exposure to UV light at 365 run UV-CAMAG lamp, the compds. were identified.  Identification of the components was achieved by comparing the fluorescent spots with those of std. substances also taking into account the consonance of Rf's.  The chem. quant. study was performed, followed by the quantification of the flavonoids and the polyphenol acid existing in Calendulae flos samples, knowing that these classes of compds. are extremely important for their pharmacol. activity.  The anal. and identification of polyphenols were performed by HPLC anal.  The quant. detn. was achieved by comparison with std. solns.

3) Background and purpose: Calendula officinalis flowers have long been employed time in folk therapy, and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the flowers.  The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal inflammatory diseases of several origins.  The recommended doses are a function both of the type and severity of the condition to be treated and the individual condition of each patient.  Therefore, the present study investigated the potential use of Calendula officinalis ext. to prevent UV irradn.-induced oxidative stress in skin.  Methods: Firstly, the physico-chem. compn. of marigold ext. (ME) (hydroalcoholic ext.) was assessed and the in vitro antioxidant efficacy was detd. using different methodologies.  Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated in L929 and HepG2 cells with the MTT assay.  Finally, the in vivo protective effect of ME against UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mice was evaluated by detg. reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and monitoring the secretion/activity of metalloproteinases.  Results and conclusions: The polyphenol, flavonoid, rutin and narcissin contents found in ME were 28.6 mg/g, 18.8 mg/g, 1.6 mg/g and 12.2 mg/g, resp. and evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ME against different radicals.  Cytoxicity expts. demonstrated that ME was not cytotoxic for L929 and HepG2 cells at concns. less than or equal to of 15 mg/mL.  However, concns. greater than or equal to 30 mg/mL, toxic effects were obsd.  Finally, oral treatment of hairless mice with 150 and 300 mg/kg of ME maintained GSH levels close to non-irradiated control mice.  In addn., this ext. affects the activity/secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB irradn.  However, addnl. studies are required to have a complete understanding of the protective effects of ME for skin. 

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Flores y hojas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Resolutiva, antitusígena, antiespasmódica, emenagoga, sudorífica, las hojas aplicadas sobre los callos y las verrugas, las hacen reducir.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Aceite esencial (0,1-0,2%): Abundante en mono y sesquiterpenos oxigenados: carvona, geranilacetona, mentona, isomentona, cariofileno, alfa y beta-iononas, pedunculatina, dihidroactinidiólido, etc. Saponósidos: calendulósidos A, D, D2, F. Carotenoides: calendulina, caroteno, licopeno, rubixantina, violaxantina, zeína, etc. Los carotenoides son compuestos relativamente estables, siendo solubles en grasas e insolubles en agua. Esto es importante cuando deba seleccionarse un medio de extracción para la elaboración de preparados en base a caléndula. Flavonoides: Derivados del quercetol (quercetin-3-0-glicósdo) y del isorramnetol. Alcoholes triterpénicos pentacíclicos: arnidiol, faradiol, ácido faradiol-3-mirístico, lupol, tanaxasterol, ácido faradiol-3-palmítico, etc. Polisacáridos: ramno-arabino-galactano y dos arabinogalactanos. Otros: ácido málico (6,8%), mucílago (1,5%), resina, goma (calendulina), sustancia amarga (calendeno o calendina), taninos, poliacetilenos, esteroles (sitosterol, estigmasterol, isofucosterol, campesterol, metil-enecholesterol y colesterol), ácido salicílico (0,34 mg/k), arvósido A (glicósido sesquiiterpénico) e inulina (raíz). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

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Origen y distribución: especie de origen incierta; cultivada por siglos (a fin curativo y ornamental) a menudo se escapa del cultivo y temporalmente se difunde poniéndose espontánea en terrenos baldíos y jardines, difusa en todoslos sitios en la región mediterránea.

Partes utilizadas: hojas y cumbres floridas.

Propiedad: antiinflamatoria, antiséptica, cicatrizante, hipotensora, vasodilatadora periférico, antiespasmódica, emenagoga, colerética, inmunoestimulante, diurético, purificador de la sangre; sudorifera.

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Droga: flores enteras.

Propiedades:
Por el aceite esencial, acción antiséptica y parasitida. Por los alcoholes y lactonas terpénicas, acciones antibiótica y fungicida. Además antiinflamatoria, cicatrizante, emenagoga, espasmolítica, sudorífica,   
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Partes usadas:
Flores

Usos tradicionales:
a) uso interno: problemas digestivos (dolores de estómago, úlceras, gastritis, colitis, padecimientos hepáticos); regula la función menstrual.
La infusión se prepara con 1 cucharada de flores frescas o secas para 1 litro de agua recién hervida: beber 1 taza 3 veces al día.
b) uso externo: en afecciones de la piel (úlceras, heridas infectadas, dermatitis de pañal, eczemas); hemorroides; infecciones vaginales por hongos.
Usar la misma infusión en lavados y compresas; también se
puede usar la tintura y la pomada.

Efectos:
antiespasmódico, antibacteriano2 emenagogo, digestivo, cicatrizante, anti-inflamatorio.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937, p.125-126.

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p.327-331.

3) KIM, Ki-Joong, et al.Two chloroplast DNA inversions originated simultaneously during the early evolution of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2005, vol.22, nº9, p.1783-1792.
 
4) LIU, Jianv; ZHOU, Qixing; WANG, Song.  Evaluation of Chemical Enhancement on Phytoremediation Effect of Cd-Contaminated Soils with Calendula Officinalis L. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2010, vol.12, nº5, p.503-515.
 
5) ROBU, Teodor, et al. Impact of chemicals on derivatives with important therapeutic activity in Calendula officinalis L. flores.  Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 2010, vol.9, nº1, p.33-37.
 
6) FONSECA, Yris Maria, et al. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: Evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion.      
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010, vol.127, nº3, p.596-601.

7) El uso popular de las plantas medicinales en Uruguay/Grosso, Lilia. - Icei, 2010. -- p. 88 

8) Linares Gimeno, Nuria/ Plantas Medicinales: cuaderno de trabajo. UPA: Madrid, 2013. p . - 67

9) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

Calendula officinalis L.
Término aceptado: 21-Ago-2007