Achillea millefolium L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) inversion in the Asteraceae has been cited as a classic example of using genomic rearrangements for defining major lineages of plants. We further characterize cpDNA inversions in the Asteraceae using extensive sequence comparisons among 56 species, including representatives of all major clades of the family and related families. We det. the boundaries of the 22-kb (now known as 22.8 kb) inversion that defines a major split within the Asteraceae, and in the process, we characterize the second and a new, smaller 3.3-kb inversion that occurs at one end of the larger inversion. One end point of the smaller inversion is upstream of the trnE-UUC gene, and the other end point is located between the trnC-GCA and rpoB genes. Although a diverse sampling of Asteraceae experienced substantial length variation and base substitution during the long evolutionary history subsequent to the inversion events, the precise locations of the inversion end points are identified using comparative sequence alignments in the inversion regions. The phylogenetic distribution of two inversions is identical among the members of Asteraceae, suggesting that the inversion events likely occurred simultaneously or within a short time period shortly after the origin of the family. Ests. of divergence times based on ndhF and rbcL sequences suggest that two inversions originated during the late Eocene (38-42 MYA). The divergence time ests. also suggest that the Asteraceae originated in the mid Eocene (42-47 MYA).


Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The chem. compn. of the hydro-distd. essential oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia was analyzed by GC, GC-MS, 13C NMR and high resoln. LC-MS.  For the first time, the use of the combination of different chromatog. and spectral methods, primarily the advantage of LC-Orbitrap over std. methods, enabled the detection of azulenes and their progenitors, in minute quantities, in previously believed proazulene free Achillea taxon (A. crithmifolia).  Furthermore, the LC-Orbitrap hyphenated method provided the means for detection of these and related non-volatile (GC-injector compared to water steam distn.) metabolites up to now unreported as essential oil constituents.

2) DNA barcoding involves sequencing a std. region of DNA as a tool for species identification.  However, there has been no agreement on which region(s) should be used for barcoding land plants.  To provide a community recommendation on a std. plant barcode, the authors compared the performance of 7 leading candidate plastid DNA regions (atpF-atpH spacer, matK gene, rbcL gene, rpoB gene, rpoC1 gene, psbK-psbI spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer).  Based on assessments of recoverability, sequence quality, and levels of species discrimination, the 2-locus combination of rbcL+matK was recommended as the plant barcode.  This core 2-locus barcode will provide a universal framework for the routine use of DNA sequence data to identify specimens and contribute toward the discovery of overlooked species of land plants.  Sequence data are deposited in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ with accession nos. GQ247894-GQ248069, GQ248071-GQ248710, GQ248715-GQ249040, GQ273984-GQ273987, GQ274310-GQ274318, and GQ335519-GQ335521. 

3) The antiproliferative activities of n-hexane, chloroform, aq.-methanol and aq. exts. of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium aggregate on three human tumor cell lines were investigated by means of MTT assays.  The chloroform-sol. ext. exerted high tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities on HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and a moderate effect on A431 cells; accordingly, it was subjected to detailed bioactivity-guided fractionation.  As a result of the multistep chromatog. purifications (VLC, CPC, PLC, gel filtration), five flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, centaureidin, casticin and artemetin) and five sesquiterpenoids (paulitin, isopaulitin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin) were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods.  The antiproliferative assay demonstrated that centaureidin is the most effective constituent of the aerial parts of yarrow: high cell growth inhibitory activities were obsd. esp. on HeLa (IC50 0.0819 mM) and MCF-7 (IC50 0.1250 mM) cells.  Casticin and paulitin were also highly effective against all three tumor cell lines (IC50 1.286-4.76 mM), while apigenin, luteolin and isopaulitin proved to be moderately active (IC50 6.95-32.88 mM).  Artemetin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin did not display antiproliferative effects against these cell lines.  This is the first report on the occurrence of seco-pseudoguaianolides (paulitin, isopaulitin and psilostachyin C) in the Achillea genus.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Flores. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Carminativo, antifebril, antiespasmódico, diurético, antiinflmatorio. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Aceite volátil: Compuesto principalmente por sesquiterpenos (azuleno, camazuleno, dihidroazulenos), monoterpenos (alfa y beta-pineno, canfeno, sabineno), ácidos aquilínicos A, B, y C, aquilicina (precursor del azuleno), 1-8 cineol (10%), linalol, terpinen-4-ol, isoartemisiacetona (9%), alcanfor, tuyonas, derivados guayanólidos, derivados germacranólidos, etc. La mayor proporción se concentra en las flores (hasta un 0,8%). Flavonoides. Apigenina, luteolina, isorhamnetina, rutina, artemetina, casticina, etc. Otros: ácido cafeico, compuestos nitrogenados como la betaína (betonicina)trazas de heterósidos cianogénicos (prunasósido), taninos, ponticaepóxido (poliíno), esteroles (beta-sitosterol, estigmasterol, campesterol), cumarinas (0,35%), resina, etc. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: S de Brasil. 


Distribución: Regiones Coquimbo, Metropolitana de Santiago, O’Higgins, Maule, Nuble, Biobio, Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen y Magallanes.

Usos medicinales: Tiene propiedades como antiinflamatoria, cicatrizante, hemostatica, antiseptica y antiespasmodica, por lo que se usa para curar heridas y llagas. El jugo de la planta se usa para detener hemorragias nasales. En infusion se bebe para mitigar dolores de espalda, colicos y diarreas.


Origin: Abundant in pastures, old fields, roadsides, and waste places.


Uses: The herb is an aromatic with diaphoretic and emmenagogue; it has been used as a vulnerary.



Droga: sumidad florida.

Antiinflamatoria, espasmolítica, colagoga, colerética, carminativa, cicatrizante, vulneraria, antimicrobiana, hemostática y ligeramente anticéptica.

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: blood depurative, kidneys                                                 

Origin: Argentina, Austtralia, Brazil, Canada, Caribbean, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Mongolian, New Zeland, Nicaragua, Peru.


According to legend, Achilles was given the gift of yarrow before the battle of Troy to help heal the wounds of his soldiers. According to Homer’s Iliad, it was the powdered root of yarrow that was effective, but most herbal texts today refer to using the aerial parts rather than the root. The leaves of yarrow applied externally do stanch the flow of hemorrhage and aid in wound healing. Old names for the plant include wound-wort, knight’s milfoil, stanchweed, and herba militaris. Yarrow flower tea has been used as an expectorant, analgesic, and sweat-inducing medicine to treat colds and flu. Rubbing fresh yarrow leaves on the skin will serve as a mosquito repellent, but it also may cause dermatitis in some individuals. Yarrow, like mint, is aggressive in the garden.
Rubbing fresh yarrow leaves on the skin will serve as a mosquito repellent, but it also may cause dermatitis in some individuals.

Part used::
Leaves, Flowers

Europe, Asia

Nota bibliográfica

1) OLIVEIRA SIMOES, Claudia María, et al. Plantas da maedicina popular no Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre : UFGRS, 1986, p. 113.

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p.726.

3) KIM, Ki-Joong; CHOI, Keung-Sun; JANSEN, Robert K. Two chloroplast DNA inversions originated simultaneously during the early evolution of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2005, vol.22, nº9, p.1783-1792.
4) SMELCEROVIC, Andrija., et al.  Analysis of the Essential Oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia. Chromatographia. 2010, vol.71, nº1-2, p.113-116.
5) HOLLINGSWORTH, Peter M., et al.  A DNA barcode for land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2009, vol.106, nº31, p.12794-12797.

6) CSUPOR-LOFFLER, Boglarka., et al.  Antiproliferative effect of flavonoids and sesquiterpenoids from Achillea millefolium s.l. on cultured human tumour cell lines. Phytotherapy Research. 2009, vol.23, nº5, p.672-676.

/) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

8) A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia/ Krochmal, Arnold; Walter, Russel S.; Doughty, Richard M.: USA: U.S.D.A Forest Service:,195

9) Linares Gimeno, Nuria/ Plantas Medicinales: cuaderno de trabajo. UPA: Madrid, 2013. p . - 67

10) Hull, Kathleen; Photog. Hull, Meredith /Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

Achillea millefolium L.
Término aceptado: 30-Ago-2007