Colchicum autumnale

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Semillas y el bulbo

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Antimitótico y antiinflamatorio, en casos de leucemia, síndrome de Becer, prevención de ataques de poliserrositis paroxística familiar conocida también como fiebre mediterránea familiar, antiinflamatoria(gota), 

EFECTOS ADVERSOS Y/O TOXICOLOGÍA= Adverse effects and toxicology: Debido a su alta toxicidad no se emplea con fines anticancerígenos, salvo uso tópico como antipsoriásico. No administrar en casos de embarazo, lactancia, insuficiencia renal e insuficiencia hepática

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Colchicina, demecoleina, colchicósido, demetilcolchicina, colchifolina, cornigerina, alcaloides, ,almidón, apigenina, ácidos fenólicos, proteínas, glúcidos reductores, lípidos, resina, compuestos fenólicos, luteolina.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Eurpa central y meridional.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale) is an undomesticated plant from whose seeds the alkaloids colchicine and
colchicoside are extd. and used pharmaceutically. Research was conducted towards domesticating meadow saffron in which inter- and intra-genetic variability of accessions was studied. Colchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine and colchicoside were assayed in plants of six accessions collected from natural sites in eastern France. These were cultivated at two sites and studied during 1 or 2 yr. Plants from 70 initial transplanted corms of one accession were studied individually for 4 yr to detd. intra-accession variability and, as spontaneous vegetative multiplication of corms occurred, comparisons among plants from one initial transplanted corm were also made. For the main characteristics, seed dry wt. (SDW) per plant, alkaloid content and colchicine:colchicoside ratio, the inter-accession variability was lower than the intra-accession variability. The results suggest that vegetative propagation of selected genotypes could improve alkaloid content by about 80% and improve SDW per plant by about 300%.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Thiocolchicoside, is a synthetic sulfur deriv. of colchicoside, a naturally occurring glucosidecontained in the Colchicum autumnale plant Thiocolchicoside has a selective affinity for g-amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptors and acts on themuscular contracture by activating the GABA-nergicinhibitory pathways thereby acting as a potent muscle relaxant Thiocolchicoside (Muscoril, Myoril, Neoflax) is a muscle relaxant with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. It acts as a competitive GABAA receptor antagonist and also inhibits glycine receptors with similar potency and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to a much lesser extent. It has powerful convulsant activity and should not be used in seizureprone individuals. Mode of action includes modulation of chemokine and prostanoid prodn. and inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion mols. by which it interferes with the initiation and amplification of the joint inflammation. THC is a muscle relaxant given by oral in the treatment of arthritis in a usual dose equiv. to 8 mg first day to 12-16 mg/day.

2) A heifer developed severe signs of acute gastrointestinal irritation 48 hr after ingesting fresh leaves of Colchicum
autumnale growing on a damp meadow. Confirmation of the suspected toxicosis was obtained by detecting colchicine in serum and urine using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure
chemical ionization. Although the serum colchicine concentration had declined to an apparently nontoxic level of 2.4
ng/ml, a more prominent concentration (640 ng/ml) indicative of colchicine poisoning was detected in the urine. This
finding is consistent with the known toxicokinetic properties of colchicine, whereby a large volume of distribution results in low circulating blood concentrations and prolonged urinary excretion.

Nota de alcance (en)

There are two kinds of fall blooming crocus. The smaller Crocus sativus is a true crocus, a member of the Iris Family, and the source of the spice saffron, which consists of the dried stigmas of the flowers. Colchicum autumnale is a larger crocus-like flower that blooms in the fall and is a member of the Lily Family. This flower comes up after the leaves have faded, a trait leading to another common name for the plant, “naked lady.” The modern medicine colchicine is derived from dried seeds and is an effective treatment for gout but can also be a deadly poison. It decreases the inflammatory response to uric acid crystals and inhibits the deposition of crystals in tissue, thereby decreasing the severe pain of gouty attacks.
Toxicity:
All parts of C. autumnale are poisonous, and toxic doses result in a condition similar to acute arsenic poisoning.

Part used::
Seeds

Origin:
Europe

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 414.

2) UMARKAR, A. R., Bavaskar, S. R.; Yewale, P. N. Thiocolchicoside as muscle relaxant: a review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2011, vol. 1, nº 3, p. 364-371.

3) KUPPER, Jacqueline, et al. A fatal case of autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) poisoning in a heifer: confirmation by massspectrometric colchicine detection. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc. 2010, vol. 22, nº 1, p. 119-122.

4) POUTARAUD, A.; GIRARDIN, P. Agronomical and chemical variability of Colchicum autumnale accessions. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 2006, vol. 86, nº 2, p.547-555 .

5) Hull, Kathleen; Photog. Hull, Meredith /Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

Colchicum autumnale
Término aceptado: 24-Abr-2012