Maytenus boaria Mol.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Celastreae, which includes about 350 species of trees and shrubs in 15 genera, was inferred in a simultaneous anal. of morphol. characters together with nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) and plastid (matK, trnL-F) genes.  A strong correlation was found between the geog. of the species sampled and their inferred relationships.  Species of Maytenus and Gymnosporia from different regions were resolved as polyphyletic groups.  Maytenus was resolved in three lineages (New World, African, and Austral-Pacific), while Gymnosporia was resolved in two lineages (New World and Old World).  Putterlickia was resolved as nested within the Old World Gymnosporia.  Catha edulis (qat, khat) was resolved as sister to the clade of Allocassine, Cassine, Lauridia, and Maurocenia.  Gymnosporia cassinoides, which is reportedly chewed as a stimulant in the Canary Islands, was resolved as a derived member of Gymnosporia and is more closely related to Lydenburgia and Putterlickia than it is to Catha.  Therefore, all eight of these genera are candidates for contg. cathinone- and/or cathine-related alkaloids.  

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The antipyretic and antiinflammatory properties of an infusion, a methanol ext., and a purified fraction enriched in sesquiterpenoids, from the aerial parts of M. boaria, were evaluated.  The fraction contg. sesquiterpenoids showed significant antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities compared with the other substances.  A description and results of the in vivo study, along with acute toxicity assays are presented.

2) Six dihydro-beta-agarofurans (5,11-epoxy-5beta,10alpha-eudesm-4(14)-ene) sesquiterpenes were isolated from Maytenus boaria.  I is new and its structure was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies, including 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR), long-range correlation spectra with inverse detection (HMBC) and Roessy expts.  The abs. configuration of I was detd. by application of the CD exciton chirality method. 

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hoja.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Febrífugo y antialérgico.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Este árbol contiene resinas gomas y taninos. En el estudio de su posible actividad antitumoral se han aislado de las hojas y tallos: daucostenina, dulcitol, lupenona, beta-amirina, ácido oleanólico, beta-sitosterol, spinasterol, hetriacontanol y n-nonacosano. Los compuestos dulcitol y beta-sitosterol son parcialmente responsables de la actividad antitumoral. Se han aislado y purificado compuestos de tipo terpenos, flavonoides, esteroides, azúcares y taninos. Trabajos realizados en los últimos año informan poliésteres del núcleo beta-agarofurano, como eumaitenina, eumaitenol y acetato de eumaitenol. Se reportan además, pristimerina, trigenona y 22-hidroxitingenona.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Chile. 

--------

Distribución: Regiones Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O’Higgins, Maule, Nuble, Biobio, Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen, Magallanes.

Usos medicinales: Tradicionalmente la infusion de las hojas se usa para aliviar la fiebre y las erupciones cutaneas provocadas por el litre. La infusion de sus semillas se usa como purgante. El aceite de las semillas se usa para curar las heridas.

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary
Although Maytenus boaria (Celastraceae) is an important medicinal plant in certain areas of South America, very little pharmacological information is available for this species. The antipyretic activity claimed in Argentina, Brazil and Chile has only been backed up by one study. Research in the field of experimental oncology, however, has been more intense not only in the extracts, but also in some of the chemical constituents such as dulcitol and maytansine.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, pp.220-221.

2) SIMMONS, Mark P., et al.  Phylogeny of the Celastreae (Celastraceae) and the relationships of Catha edulis (qat) inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. V.48(2):  745-757.  2008.

3) BACKHOUSE, N., et al. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activities of Maytenus boaria. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1994, vol.32, nº3, p.239-244.
 
4) GONZALEZ, Antonio G, et al. Structure and absolute configuration of a sesquiterpene from Maytenus boaria. Phytochemistry. 1994, vol.35, nº1, p.187-189.

5) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud.  Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005, p. 309.

6) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

7) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

Maytenus boaria Mol.
Término aceptado: 14-Sep-2007