Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

To better understand the historical biogeog. of the southern hemisphere and evolutionary responses of plants to aridity, we undertook a detailed phylogenetic study of the predominantly southern family Elaeocarpaceae sensu lato (including Tremandraceae).  Plastid trnL-trnF and nuclear ITS sequence data were analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian methods and mol. evolutionary rates calibrated using the Oligocene fossil record of Elaeocarpus mesocarps to est. the min. divergence dates.  The results indicate the monophyly of all recognized genera and a placement for the former Tremandraceae (three genera and about 49 species of shrubby, dry-adapted Australian plants) within the widespread predominantly rainforest tree family Elaeocarpaceae (nine genera, over 500 species).  The former Tremandraceae clade diverged from its sister (Aceratium + Elaeocarpus + Sericolea) during the Paleocene, after which it underwent a marked acceleration in evolutionary rate.  Furthermore, this lineage diversified during the late Miocene, coincident with widespread aridification in Australian environments and extensive radiations of several sclerophyllous groups.  The role of dispersal in explaining the current geog. distribution of Elaeocarpaceae is illustrated by Aristotelia.  This genus, whose distribution was previously thought to reflect Gondwanan vicariance, is shown to have arrived in New Zealand from Australia at least 6-7 million yr ago.  

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) From ethanolic, water exts. and their fractions of mature fruits of wild black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Mol) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae), different phenolic compds. were identified by chromatog. (HPLC) and unequivocally assignments by spectroscopic (UV, NMR) data anal.  Anthocyanidins, flavonoids and phenolic acids fractions were obtained using flash and open column chromatog.  The main compds. gentisic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, delphinidin, cyanidin, vanillic acid, delphinidin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, quercetin, rutin, myricetin, catechin and epi-catechin as mixt. 1:1, and several glycosides of anthocyanidins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-sambubioside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside), and proanthocyanidin B were detected.  In addn. to phytochem. anal. the antioxidant activities of exts., partitions and fractions were strongly correlated with the highest polyphenol contents.  The most active samples were the ethanolic and acetone exts. in all bioassays used and all samples were compared for activity against butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), quercetin and tocopherol used as pattern samples.  The juice (E), EtOH ext. (A) and acetone partition (B) were found to have IC50 values of 4.7, 1.7 and 7.4 ppm, resp. against DPPH and 5.9, 2.1 and 3.9 ppm, resp. against TBARS formation.  Addnl., the fraction F-4 showed a strong activity with IC50 of 4.9 and 6.5 ppm, against DPPH and TBARS resp.  Consistent with this finding, EtOH ext. had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values as percentage of activity.  On the other hand the IC50 values for the inhibitory activity against O×-2 - of ext. B, F-3 and F-4 were 9.7, 13.2 and 10.7 ppm, resp. and against OH×- were 29.1, 7.0 and 6.3 ppm, resp.  The EtOH ext. protects against stress oxidative reducing the concn. of the MDA a lipid peroxidn. index.
 These results shows that this fruit could be useful as antioxidant and nutraceutical sources.

2) 3-Hydroxyindole was isolated from the EtOH ext. of fruits of Aristotelia chilensis during analyses by HPLC/MS and GC/MS and identified by its mass fragmentation pattern and spectrophotometric data.  Addnl., this ext. showed an interesting antioxidant activity in DPPH, crocin and TBARS assays.  The presence of this type of compd. in this fruit species permits us to explain its strong antioxidant activity and its important part in the biosynthetic pathway of phenolic and alkaloid compds. in this plant.  Therefore this compd. could be useful for the development of future nutraceutical and antioxidant protective agents.

3) The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated.  Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes.  They are used to prep. jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams.  Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species.  Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits).  The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world.

4) A review.  An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a pos. and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease.  Berry fruits, which are com. cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry (Rubus spp.), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and strawberry (Fragaria ´ ananassa).  Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry (Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea).  In addn., berry fruits such as arctic bramble (Rubus articus), bilberries (Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant (Ribes nigrum), boysenberries (Rubus spp.), cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries (Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries (Sambucus spp.), gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry (Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries (Rubus spp.), Rowan berries (Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world.  Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate (Punica granatum), goji berries (Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian acai berry (Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis).  Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chem. and biol. and physiol. functions of these "superfoods" are necessary.

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary:
Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis - Elaeocarpaceae) berries have shown interesting analgesic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity in several experimental models. Their high content of anthocyanins and polar polyglycosylated derivatives has made them an interesting source of antioxidants that are presently used in the food and nutraceutical industries, especially in the USA.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Fruto.

ACCION FARMACOLOGICA= Pharmacological action: Antidiarréico, disentería y para lavar heridas.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Infusión, gargaras y buches.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Las sustancias colorantes han sido objeto de numerosos estudios; se encuentran alcaloides indólicos, aristotelina, aristona, aristotelona, aristotelinina, 8-oxo-9-dehidro-hobartina, makonina, aristotelinona, 8-oxo-9-dehidromakomakina, 9-dehidro-8-oxo-makomakina y flavonoides: glucósidos decianidina, delfinidina, malvidina y petunidina.

ZONA GEOGRAFICA= Geografical zone: Chile. 

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Distribución: Regiones Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O’Higgins, Maule, Nuble, Biobio, Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen. Archipielago Juan Fernandez.

Usos medicinales: Las hojas se utilizan para bajar la fiebre de los ninos. Las hojas secas y en polvo sirven de unguento para curar heridas y cicatrices. La infusion de las hojas y los frutos tambien sirve para bajar la glicemia. Ademas, los frutos en tisanas se utilizan como antidiarreicos.

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hojas, frutos

Usos tradicionales:
a) uso interno: diarreas, disenterías (trastorno infeccioso con diarrea sanguinolenta) y empacho (diarrea con decaimiento, fiebre y depresión del glóbulo ocular).
La infusión se prepara con 1 cucharadita de hojas secas trituradas, ó 2 hojas frescas, ó 1 cucharada de frutos, para 1 litro de agua recién hervida: beber 1 taza 3 a 4 veces al día.
b) uso externo: dolor de garganta, inflamación de las amígdalas, úlceras de la boca.
Se hacen gargarismo con la misma infusión. Las heridas se lavan con la infusión de hojas frescas. En dolores de espalda se usan hojas frescas machacadas, aplicadas como cataplasma. Efectos: analgésico1, antiespasmódico2, antiséptico3, astringente4, anti-inflamatorio.

Efectos: analgésico, antiespasmódico, antiséptico, astringente, anti inflamatorio.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB,1995, p.261-262.

2) CRAYN, Darren M.; ROSSETTO, Maurizio; MAYNARD, David J. Molecular phylogeny and dating reveals an Oligo-Miocene radiation of dry-adapted shrubs (former tremandraceae) from rainforest tree progenitors (Elaeocarpaceae) in Australia.  American Journal of Botany. 2006, vol.93, nº9, p.1328-1342.
 
3) CESPEDES, Carlos L., et al. Phytochemical profile and the antioxidant activity of Chilean wild black-berry fruits, Aristotelia chilensis (Mol) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae). Food Chemistry. 2010, vol.119, nº3, p.886-895.
 
4) CESPEDES, Carlos L., et al. Antioxidant activity of an unusual 3-hydroxyindole derivative isolated from fruits of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz.  Journal of Biosciences. 2009, vol.64, nº9/10, p.759-762.
 
5) DAMASCOS, Maria A., et al. Fruit Mineral Contents of Six Wild Species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina. Biological Trace Element Research. 2008, vol.125, nº1, p.72-80.
 
6) SEERAM, Navindra P.  Berry Fruits: Compositional Elements, Biochemical Activities, and the Impact of Their Intake on Human Health, Performance, and Disease. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008, vol.56, nº3, p.627-629.

7) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

8) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz
Término aceptado: 03-Oct-2007