Jatropha gossypifolia

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Trastornos digestivos, y afecciones renales.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Se han aislado de las hojas flavonoides, taninos, saponinas e histamina. En las raíces y semillas se ha determinado la presencia de terpenos y lignanos y en las semillas una proteína tóxica, la curcina (Bonelly de Calventy, 1986), y ésteres diterpénicos de forbol. Los tallos contienen lignanos, alcaloides, alcoholes alifáticos de cadena larga y palmitona (Chatterjee, et al., 1981). La hoja contiene histamina, vitexina, iso vitexina y taninos. Se ha reportado la presencia de los siguientes compuestos en diferentes partes de Jatropha gossypifolia: apigenina, gama-butiri-lactona-2-piperonilida, jadaina, jatropha-factor G-2,3,4-delta epoxijatrophatriona, 3,4-beta-epoxijatrophatriona, jatropholonas A y B, Jatrophona, 2-delta-hidroxijatrofona, 3,4-delta-epoxi-jatrophona, 2,3,bishidroximetil-6-naftaleno, 12-desoxi-16-hidroxi-phorbol, prasanthalina, saponaretina y vitexina (Willaman & Schubert, 1961; Kupchan, et al., 1970; Chatterjee, 1981).

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil. 

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

The genus Jatropha is native of tropical America with more than 200 species that are widely distributed in tropics with a promise for use as an oil crop for biodiesel. This investigation was carried out to assess the genetic diversity of 12 Jatropha species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. From 26 random primers used, 18 primers gave reproducible amplification banding patterns of 112 polymorphic bands out of 134 bands scored accounting for 80.2% polymorphism across the genotypes. Three primers viz., OPA 4, OPF 11, and OPD 14 generated 100% polymorphic patterns. The polymorphic information content was highest for the primer OPD 14 (0.50) followed by the primers OPF 11 and OPAD 11 (0.48). Jaccard's coefficient of similarity varied from 0.00 to 0.85, indicative of high level of genetic variation among the genotypes studied. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated three distinct clusters, one comprising all accessions of J. curcas L., while second included six species viz., J. ramanadensis Ramam., J. gossypiifolia L., J. podagrica Hook., J. tanjorensis J. L. Ellis et Saroja J. villosa Wight and J. integerrima Jacq. J. glandulifera Roxb. remained distinct and formed third cluster indicating its higher genetic distinctness from other species. The overall grouping pattern of clustering corresponds well with principal component analysis confirming patterns of genetic diversity observed among the species. The result provides valid guidelines for collection, conservation and characterization of Jatropha genetic resources. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Nota de alcance (en)

Occurrence
In Venezuela, the species is common in hot regions.

Ethnobotanical and general use

Medical use
Leaf A decoction taken orally is purgative, vomitive and stomachic; it cures disturbances of liver and bladder. The leaves also have diuretic effects and are applied for kidney trouble and for diabetes; additionally they have anticatarrhal effects. Locally applied they cure arthritis. A decoction or infusion of the leaves is employed for colics (cASTILLO et al. 1992). Sap. A sap of the leaves is applied on wounds to control haemorrhage. To drain purulent wounds, a decoction of the leaves is mixed with castor oil. Persistent diarrhoea is cured with a leaf decoction. A leaf decoction is also applied for colics and disorders of the spleen, for venereal diseases, stomach aches (emetic), biliary disturbances, diseases of the liver and fever. A leaf decoction mixed with castor oil is also applied to the skin to make pustules burst. The sap of the leaves is haemostatic and cures mouth ulcers. A cataplasm of fresh crushed leaves is used for swollen breasts, fractures and bruises. The leaf is also used for anorexia and as a vulnerary. A decoction of the leaf buds orally taken (together with some other healing plants) is used to cure diarrhoea. Bark. The bark in decoction is abortive and an emmenagogum and cures venereal diseases. A decoction of the bark is also antiblennorrhagic (CASTILLO et al. 1992). Latex. The latex is used as an antipyretic and for buccal ulcers. It has haemostatic effects and is applied for haemorrhoids and burnings. A wad of cotton-wool soaked in the latex soothes tooth ache. Branches. To cure diabetes, young branches are macerated in water. A decoction of branches and leaves prepared as a bath is used for exanthema and eruptions of the skin. Root. The root in infusion it taken as an emmenagogue and as an abortive. A decoction of the root cures oedema and diabetes. It is also used in cases of indigestion. Flower. Flowers are said to cure asthma. Flowering branches are also diuretic and cure the urinary tract ailments. Fruit. The fruit has molluscicidal properties. Seed. Seeds and leaves are purgative and emetic. The oil of the seeds is purgative, emetic, antihelmintic, antidiabetic, and is even used to cure cancer. Applied locally, the oil has an irritating effect. Entire plant. The entire plant has stimulating effects on the uterine muscles. Gargles are recommended for tonsillitis. Possibly, the plant can also be applied to cure leprosy. Healing properties Emetic, purgative, abortive, diuretic, antipyretic, vulnerary, antidiabetic, antibiotic, antitumoral, as an antidote against convulsions and as an emmenagogue.

Chemical contents and healing effects
The leaf contains jatrophone, flavonoids, mucilage, a macrocyclic diterpenoid tumor inhibitor and antileukemia jatrophone derivatives. The bark contains lignan which can be toxic. The root has antitumoural activities, cytotoxic activity, is molluscicidal and is effective against convulsions (jatrophone). The seeds contain curcin, a toxic albumin. The shoot has antimicrobial effects. The entire plant is also molluscicidal.

Toxicity
The plant is toxic and may provoke an allergy on the skin (dermtitis). Intoxication may cause drastic diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscular contraction, palpitations, hypotension. More than 2 g of the plant per kilogram weight are toxic. Alcoholic drinks are used as an antidote. The infusion of the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia is an antidote to urticaria induced by Cnidoscolus kunthiana.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, pp.291-294.

2) GANESH RAM, S., et al. Genetic diversity among Jatropha species as revealed by RAPD markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2008, vol.55, nº6, p.803-809.

Jatropha gossypifolia
Término aceptado: 09-Oct-2007