Astronium urundeuva (Allemão)

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA=Used part: Corteza. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Vulnerario. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil, Paraguay, norte de Argentina.  

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs
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Nine dinucleotide microsatellites were developed in Astronium urundeuva (Anacardiaceae), a typical tree of the seasonally-dry tropical forests of South America and characterized on three populations from Paraguay and Argentina. Seven microsatellites were found polymorphic in within population gene diversities ranging from 0.32 to 0.91, and an obsd. no. of alleles varying between four and 20. Despite their relatively low no. of alleles, these markers proved valuable tools in detecting genetic structure between three populations in Paraguay and North Argentina. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The essential oils from leaves and fine branches of Astronium urundeuva and A. fraxinifolium were obtained by hydrodistn. and analyzed by GC-MS.  The oils of the samples of A. urundeuva, collected at Carolina, state of Maranhao, and Araguaina, state of Tocantins, were dominated by delta3-carene (78.1% and 56.3%, resp.).  The major components of A. fraxinifolium, collected at Chapada dos Guimaraes, state of Mato Grosso, were (Z)-beta-ocimene (42.2%), bicyclogermacrene (13.3%), limonene (13.2%) and (E)-beta-ocimene (11.1%).

2) An Astronium urundeuva ball-milled wood sample was successively extd. with benzene, benzene-EtOH (2:1, vol./vol.-1), CHCl3, and water in a soxhlet app.  The extd. wood was air-dried, giving the residue A that was then treated with ketone-water (9:1), in a soxhlet app.  From the ketone-water ext. was pptd. the milled wood lignin (I).  With exception of I, the ext. contents summed up 18.19% (o.d.w.).  The Klason lignin content of A and the methoxyl content of I were 23.84% and 19.00%, resp.  Another sample of A gave hardly and easily hydrolyzable polysaccharide contents of 34.86% and 18.81%, resp.  A 2nd sample of ball-milled wood was submitted to a single extn. with MeOH, at room temp., affording the MeOH ext. B (23.85% o.d.w.).  Liq. and solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopies indicated that B is mainly constituted by proanthocyanidins of profisetinidin and prorobinetidin types.

3) The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of bark extracts of Anadenanthera macrocarpa Brenan (Fabaceae), Astronium urundeuva Engl. (Anacardiaceae), Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Fabaceae) and Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D.  Penn. (Sapotaceae), four trees used as anti-inflammatory agents in the Brazilian state of Bahia, were studied using different bioassays.  The total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts was determined by monitoring the intensity of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), using 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) as a peroxyl radical source.  All the extracts studied were active in this method.  The highest activity, measured as equivalents of Trolox concentration, was observed in the methanolic extract of A. macrocarpa (TRAP = 3028 +/- 95 microM).  Lipid peroxidation was assessed by means of the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide-initiated CL in rat liver homogenates.  As in the case of luminol-enhanced CL, all the extracts tested were effective in reducing the production of TBARS.  The highest activity was observed in the aqueous extract of A. macrocarpa (IC50 = 54 microg/ml).  Extracts of A. macrocarpa and S. obtusifolium also reduced hydroperoxide-initiated CL, the methanolic extract of the former being the most active, showing an IC50 = 2.0 microg/ml.  DNA-sugar damage induced by Fe(II) salts was also used to determine the capacity of the extracts to suppress hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation of DNA.  All extracts tested were highly effective in reducing oxidation of DNA.  The highest activity was observed in the methanolic extract of A. urundeuva, showing an IC50 = 37 microg/ml.  The results obtained suggest that the antioxidant activity described could play an important role in the anti-inflammatory activity claimed for the plants under study.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, p.4.

2) CAETANO, S, et al. Y. Identification of microsatellite markers in a neotropical seasonally dry forest tree, Astronium urundeuva (Anacardiaceae). Molecular Ecology Notes. 2005, vol.5, nº1, p.21-23.
 
3) MAIA, Jose Guilherme S, et al. Essential oils from Astronium urundeuva (Allemao) Engl. and A. fraxinifolium Schott ex Spreng. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 2002, vol.17, nº1, p.72-74.   

4) MORAIS, Sergio A. L, et al. Studies on polyphenols and lignin of Astronium urundeuva wood.  Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society.1999, vol.10, nº6, p.447-452.
  
5) DESMARCHELIER, C, et al. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in extracts from medicinal trees used in the 'Caatinga' region in northeastern Brazil. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 1999, vol.67, nº1, p.69-77.

Astronium urundeuva (Allemão)
Término aceptado: 13-May-2008