Zea mays L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Because of the economic importance of maize and its scientific importance as a model system for studies of domestication, its evolutionary history is of general interest. We analyzed the population genetic structure of maize races by genotyping 964 individual plants, representing almost the entire set of ∼350 races native to the Americas, with 96 microsatellites. Using Bayesian clustering, we detected four main clusters consisting of highland Mexican, northern United States (US), tropical lowland, and Andean races. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the southwestern US was an intermediary stepping stone between Mexico and the northern US. Furthermore, southeastern US races appear to be of mixed northern flint and tropical lowland ancestry, while lowland middle South American races are of mixed Andean and tropical lowland ancestry. Several cases of post-Columbian movement of races were detected, most notably from the US to South America. Of the four main clusters, the highest genetic diversity occurs in highland Mexican races, while diversity is lowest in the Andes and northern US. Isolation by distance appears to be the main factor underlying the historical diversification of maize. We identify highland Mexico and the Andes as potential sources of genetic diversity underrepresented among elite lines used in maize breeding programs.

Nota de alcance (en)

The infusion of the silks is said to be diuretic and a renal tonic (Cabrera n.d.; Gonzàlez F. 1979; Gonzàlez S. 1979; Sànchez C. 1981).

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Uses: weight loss, local pain, diuretic, urinary infection, kidneys.                                                 

Origin: Argentina, Australia, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Caribbean, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey, United Statte, Uruguay, Venezuela.             

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Fruit: Infusion drunk for diarrhoea. Half-ripe fruit in an infusion for a male aphrodisiac.

Flower: Stigmas plucked from corncob are cooked in water as a treatment for rheumatism, urinary complaints, bladder cramps, and to prevent urinary stones. Green corncob is cooked in water, which is drunk for dietary slimming, to reduce fat. Young corncob is used in a decoction for albuminuria.

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Freshly picked and dried soft threads of the female flower (corn silks) have been used as a remedy to sooth irritations of the urinary tract, such as urethritis, cystitis, and bladder stones. Components in the silks do have some diuretic properties. They also have been folk remedies for bed-wetting. The daily ingestion of “grits” (corn meal porridge) may lower blood cholesterol levels. Cornstarch as a paste or added to bath water can sooth itchy skin conditions.

Part used::
Corn silks, Fruits

Origin:
America

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Estigma, estilo.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Diurético, antiblenorrágico y estupefaciente.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Estilos y estigmas: Contienen saponinas (10%), fitoesteroles (sitosterol y estigmasterol), alantoína, betaína, taninos (11-13%), resinas, goma, fermentos, flavonoides, antocianidinas, abundantes sales minerales (de potasio, calcio, magnesio, sodio y hierro), trazas de aceite esencial (0,1-0,2% destacándose entre sus componentes el carvacrol y en menor medida otros trepernos), ácido salicílico (0,3%), ácido maizérico, mucílagos, vitaminas C y K, etc. Semillas: Abundantes ácidos grasos poliinsaturados: ácidos oleico(37%), linoleico (50%), palmítico (10%) y esteárico (3%); aminoácidos, abundante almidón, caratenoides, dextrina, sustancias nitrogenadas (zína, edestina, maicina), vitamina E (una de las principales fuentes para su obtención), etc. Hoja: hordenina (alcaloide), ácidos orgánicos y heterósidos cianogenéticos. Análisis proximal del grano de maíz por 100g: calorías 334; proteínas 9,2g; grasas totales 3,8g; hidratos de carbono 65,2g; agua 12,5g; fibra 9,2g; cenizas 0,4%; calcio 15mg; flúor 0,06 mg; fósforo 256mg; hierro 1,5mg; magnesio 120mg; potasio 330mg; sodio 6mg; retinol 90g; tiamina 0,36mg; riboflavina 0,20mg; niacina 1,5mg; piridoxina 0,40mg; ácido ascórbico (trazas), tocoferol 2,2mg.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Argentina. 

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Partes usadas:
todo el pelo del choclo o maíz

Usos tradicionales:
hinchazón por acumulación de líquido.
La infusión se prepara con una cucharada del vegetal para 1 litro de agua recién hervida: beber 1 taza 3 veces en el día.

Efectos: diurético.
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Enfermedad o síntoma
Problemas renales

Parte utilizada
Estigma

Forma de preparación
Decocción

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, p. 59.

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 678.

3) VIGOROUX, Y., et al. Population structure and genetic diversity of New World maize races assessed by DNA microsatellites. American Journal of Botany. 2008, vol.95, nº10, p.1240-1253 .

4) Nicholson Michael S. ; Arzhennithe, Charles . Economic Botany. vol. 47 . --p. 184-192 1993

5) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

6) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

7) Hull, Kathleen; Photog. Hull, Meredith /Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

8) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Zea mays L.
Término aceptado: 17-Oct-2007