Sporobolus indicus (L) R. Br

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Planta entera.  

ACCION FARMACOLOGICA= Pharmacological action: Anticonceptivo.

ZONA GEOGRAFICA= Geografical zone: Argentina.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Based on morphological features alone, there is considerable difficulty in identifying the 5 most economically damaging weed species of Sporobolus [viz. S. pyramidalis P. Beauv., S. natalensis (Steud.) Dur and Schinz, S. fertilis (Steud.) Clayton, S. africanus (Poir.) Robyns and Tourney, and S. jacquemontii Kunth.] found in Australia. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to create a series of genetic markers that could positively identify the 5 major weeds from the other less damaging weedy and native Sporobolus species. In the initial RAPD profiling experiment, using arbitrarily selected primers and involving 12 species of Sporobolus, 12 genetic markers were found that, when used in combination, could consistently identify the 5 weedy species from all others. Of these 12 markers, the most diagnostic were UBC51490 for S. pyramidalis and S. natalensis; UBC43310.2000.2100 for S. fertilis and S. africanus; and ORA20850 and UBC43470 for S. jacquemontii. Species-specific markers could be found only for S. jacquemontii. In an effort to understand why there was difficulty in obtaining species-specific markers for some of the weedy species, a RAPD data matrix was created using 40 RAPD products. These 40 products amplified by 6 random primers from 45 individuals belonging to 12 species, were then subjected to numerical taxonomy and multivariate system (NTSYS pc version 1.70) analysis. The RAPD similarity matrix generated from the analysis indicated that S. pyramidalis was genetically more similar to S. natalensis than to other species of the 'S. indicus complex'. Similarly, S. jacquemontii was more similar to S. pyramidalis, and S. fertilis was more similar to S. africanus than to other species of the complex. Sporobolus pyramidalis, S. jacquemontii, S. africanus, and S. creber exhibited a low within-species genetic diversity, whereas high genetic diversity was observed within S. natalensis, S. fertilis, S. sessilis, S. elongates, and S. laxus. Cluster analysis placed all of the introduced species (major and minor weedy species) into one major cluster, with S. pyramidalis and S. natalensis in one distinct subcluster and S. fertilis and S. africanus in another. The native species formed separate clusters in the phenograms. The close genetic similarity of S. pyramidalis to S. natalensis, and S. fertilis to S. africanus may explain the difficulty in obtaining RAPD species-specific markers. The importance of these results will be within the Australian dairy and beef industries and will aid in the development of integrated management strategy for these weeds. © CSIRO 2005.

Nota de alcance (en)

Occurrence
The plant is found in the whole of tropical America. In Venezuela, it prefers hot and temperate regions; it is common in the savanna and at disturbed places.

Ethnobotanical and general use

Economical utilization.
The species furnishes a good cattle feed. The plant is so strong that it is used locally as a rope to tie animals. The golden-yellow glossy plant is used locally for the manufacture of hats.

Medical use
RODRIGUEZ (1983) indicates that branches of Sporobolus sp. are sold in herbolarios of Barquisimeto; used in infusion they are said to be good for the kidneys.

Toxicity
The poisonous fungus Helminthosporium ravenelli CURTIS which is said to cause trembling in animals has been reported in Venezuela as a pathogen of Sporobolus indicus. Sporobolus virginicus (L.) KUNTH. (Fig. 141). The taxonomical and anatomical descriptions are found in ROTH 1992. The plant is a fodder of live-stock. Sporobolus sp. (grama) is medically used. An infusion of the branches is taken for kidney problems.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur,1980, p.59.

2) SHRESTHA, S., et al. An identification tool for the Australian weedy Sporobolus species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research.2005, vol.56, nº2, p. 157-167.

3) South American medicinal plants : botany, remedial properties, and general use / I. Roth, H. Lindorf. Berlin ; New York : Springer, c2002. -- p. 492.

Sporobolus indicus (L) R. Br
Término aceptado: 17-Oct-2007