Nectandra falcifolia (Nees) Castigl.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Corteza.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Purgante.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: N. falcifolia Leaf oil was obtained in 0.11% yield by steam distn. and in 0.03% yield by steam distn. using water satd. with NaCl followed by ether extn. (indirect). The components of the oil were Me Pr ether [557-17-5] 4.5, acetone [67-64-1] 5.2, alpha-pinene [80-56-8] 5.42, camphene [79-92-5] 2.34, beta-pinene [127-91-3] 1.97, myrcene [123-35-3] 2.39, limonene [138-86-3] + 1,8-cineol [470-82-6] 9.65, p-cymene [99-87-6] 3.33, linalool [78-70-6] 3.62, benzaldehyde [100-52-7] 3.31, caryophyllene [87-44-5] 2.27, alpha-terpineol [98-55-5] 2.35, citronellol [106-22-9] 4.5, geraniol [106-24-1] 4.6, benzyl alc. [100-51-6] + safrol [94-59-7] 8.06, and nerolidol [7212-44-4] 1.62%. eugenol [97-53-0] 9.87 And formic acid [64-18-6] + benzoic acid [65-85-0] + salicylic acid [69-72-7] 0.27% were also found.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The present study evaluated the effect of the crude ext. of the leaves of Nectandra falcifolia (NEES) Castiglioni and its fractions in different exptl. models of inflammation (paw edema, pleurisy, and ear edema).  Carrageenan-induced edema of the paw and pleurisy were evaluated in Wistar rats (180-220 g), which were treated with different doses of the total ext. (250, 500 mg×kg-1).  Edema of the ear, induced by croton oil, and detn. of myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated in Swiss mice (25-35 g).  In this expt., the crude ext. of Nectandra falcifolia (Nf) (1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mg) and the hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and hydromethanol fractions (5.0 mg) were applied topically, immediately after application of the oil.  The crude ext. of Nf (500 mg×kg-1) significantly reduced edema of the paw compared to the control group.  Similarly, at doses of 250 and 500 mg×kg-1 it significantly reduced the vol. of pleural inflammatory exudate compared to the control animals.  However, it did not change the no. of migrated cells.  At doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg, the crude ext. significantly inhibited edema of the ear and the influx of neutrophils.  The fractions from Nectandra falcifolia (hexane, chloroform, Et acetate and hydromethanol) also inhibited edema of the ear.  Taken together, the results demonstrated that the crude ext. and its fractions administered to animals orally or topically showed an anti-inflammatory effect.

2) Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and schistosomiasis (bilharzia) are parasitic diseases with wide distribution on the American continent, affecting millions of people.  In the present study, biological assays for antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities were carried out with ethanolic extracts of plant species from the Brazilian part of the Upper Parana River.  Crude extracts were obtained by percolation with absolute ethanol from the leaves of Cayaponia podantha Cogn., Nectandra falcifolia (Nees) Castiglioni and Paullinia elegans Cambess., as well as from the aerial parts of Helicteres gardneriana St.  Hil. & Naud. and Melochia arenosa Benth., all belonging to genera used in folk medicine.  Trypanocidal activity of plants was assayed on epimastigote cultures in liver infusion tryptose.  Anti-leishmanial activity was determined over cultures of promastigote forms of the parasite in Schneider's Drosophila medium.  Microscopic countings of parasites, after their incubation in the presence of different concentrations of the crude extracts, were made in order to determine the percentage of growth inhibition.  C. podantha and M. arenosa, at a concentration of 10 microg/mL, showed 90.4 +/- 11.52 and 88.9 +/- 2.20% growth inhibition, respectively, of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, whereas N. falcifolia demonstrated an LD50 of 138.5 microg/mL against promastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.  Regarding molluscicidal activity, the acute toxicity of the extracts on Biomphalaria glabrata was evaluated by a rapid screening procedure.  M. arenosa was 100% lethal to snails at 200 microg/mL and showed an LD50 of 143 microg/mL.  Screening of plant extracts represents a continuous effort to find new antiparasitic drugs.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur,1980, p.65.

2) TALENTI, Edilberto C. J.; MANCINI, Pedro M. E.; RETAMAR, Juan A. Essential oil of Nectandra falcifolia. Essenze, Derivati Agrumari. 1981, vol.51, nº2, p.121-128 .

3) OLIVEIRA DE MELO, Juliana., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract and fractions of Nectandra falcifolia leaves. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2006, vol.29, nº11, p.2241-2245 .
4) TRUITI, M C T., et al. Antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities of five Brazilian plants. Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas. . 2005, vol.38, nº12, p.1873-1878.

Nectandra falcifolia (Nees) Castigl.
Término aceptado: 06-Nov-2007