Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

The aims of this study were to evaluate the degree of morphological differentiation between six varieties of Acacia caven and to examine their taxonomic validity in the context of other Argentinean species of the genus. To accomplish these purposes, morphological traits have been analyzed using multivariate methods (non parametric ANOVA, phenetic analysis and principal component analysis) on the varieties of A. caven and other six species of the genus, represented in Argentina. The phenogram obtained showed two principal clusters, one grouping all the species of subg. Acacia and the other grouping the species of subg. Aculeiferum. This result agreed with Vassal's infrageneric classification. However, the results of the principal PCA gathered the seven species here included in three groups, which were consistent with Bentham's infrageneric treatment. The ANOVA method indicated that most of the morphometric characters used were statistically sound for differentiation between varieties of A. caven. Further studies, including more species and characters, must be performed in order to clarify the position of Acacia boliviana and the relationships between A. caven and A. curvifructa. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary
Acacia caven (Leguminoseae), also known as cavenia acacia, is widely distributed throughout Central and Northern Argentina, also extending its presence to neighbor countries. Although a wide variety of medicinal uses have been attributed to this plant, none have been validated from a pharmacological point of view. The essential oil, however, is used in  perfumes due to its pleasant fragrance.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas, semillas.

ACCION FARMACOLOGICA= Pharmacological action: Cicatrizante (hojas), digestivo (semillas).

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Chemicals (+)-CATECHOL Plant: DUKE1992A; (+)-GALLOCATECHOL Plant: DUKE1992A; 3-METHYL-3-E-NONEN-1-OIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; 3-METHYL-3-Z-DECEN-1-OL Flower: DUKE1992A; 3-METHYL-3-Z-NONENOIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; 4-HYDROXY-PIPECOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; ALANINE Leaf 3,440 - 18,450 ppm DUKE1992A; ALPHA-IONONE Flower: DUKE1992A; ALPHA-SPINASTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A; ALPHA-TERPINEOL Flower: DUKE1992A; AMINO-ACIDS Plant: DUKE1992A; ANISALDEHYDE Flower: DUKE1992A; APIGENIN-6,8-BIS-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; ARGININE Leaf 7,360 - 39,480 ppm DUKE1992A; AROMADENDRIN Plant: DUKE1992A; ASCORBIC-ACID Leaf 490 - 2,636 ppm DUKE1992A; ASH Leaf 10,000 - 53,800 ppm DUKE1992A; ASPARTIC-ACID Plant 7,040 - 37,770 ppm DUKE1992A; BENZALDEHYDE Flower: DUKE1992A; BENZOIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; BENZYL-ALCOHOL Flower: DUKE1992A; BETA-CAROTENE Leaf 120 - 646 ppm DUKE1992A; BETA-GERANIOL Flower: DUKE1992A; BETA-IONONE Flower: DUKE1992A; BUTYRIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; CALCIUM Leaf 930 - 5,003 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3,900 - 5,500 ppm DUKE1992A; CAMPESTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A; CARBOHYDRATES Leaf 90,000 - 484,200 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 730,000 - 770,000 ppm DUKE1992A: CHOLESTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A; CIS-3-METHYL-DEC-3-EN-1-OL Flower: DUKE1992A; CIS-3-METHYL-DEC-3-ENOIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; COUMARIN Flower: DUKE1992A; CRESOLS Plant: DUKE1992A; CUMINALDEHYDE Flower: DUKE1992A; CUMINIC-ALCOHOL Flower: DUKE1992A; CYSTINE Seed 700 - 750 ppm DUKE1992A; DECYL-ALDEHYDE Flower: DUKE1992A; DIHYDROACTINIDIOLIDE Flower: DUKE1992A; EICOSANE Flower: DUKE1992A; ELLAGIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; EO Flower 5,000 - 50,000 ppm DUKE1992A; ETHYL-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A; ETHYL-PHENOL Flower: DUKE1992A; EUGENOL Flower: DUKE1992A; FARNESOL Flower: DUKE1992A; FAT Leaf 6,000 - 32,280 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 23,000 - 78,000 ppm DUKE1992A; FIBER Leaf 57,000 - 306,000 ppm DUKE1992A; GALLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; GERANIOL Flower: DUKE1992A; GERANYL-ACETATE Flower: DUKE1992A; GLUTAMIC-ACID Leaf 10,080 - 54,070 ppm DUKE1992A; GLYCINE Leaf 2,720 - 14,590 ppm DUKE1992A; HCN Leaf: DUKE1992A; HISTIDINE Leaf 1,840 - 9,870 ppm DUKE1992A; HYDROXYACETOPHENONE Plant: DUKE1992A; IRON Leaf 37 - 199 ppm DUKE1992A; ISOLEUCINE Leaf 2,800 - 15,020 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,075 - 1,100 ppm DUKE1992A; ISORHAMNETIN-3-RUTINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; KAEMPFEROL Plant: DUKE1992A; KAEMPFEROL-7-GALLOYLGLUCOSE Plant: DUKE1992A; KAEMPFEROL-7-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; LEUCINE Leaf 6,000 - 32,190 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 3,700 - 3,750 ppm DUKE1992A; LINALOL Flower: DUKE1992A; LINALYL-ACETATE Flower: DUKE1992A; LINAMARIN Plant: DUKE1992A; LOTAUSTRALIN Plant: DUKE1992A; LYSINE Leaf 3,760 - 20,170 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,750 - 1,800 ppm DUKE1992A; M-DIGALLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; METHIONINE Leaf 700 - 3,860 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 175 - 200 ppm DUKE1992A; METHYL-EUGENOL Flower: DUKE1992A; METHYL-GALLATE Plant: DUKE1992A; METHYL-SALICYLATE Flower: DUKE1992A; MUCILAGE Plant: DUKE1992A; MYRICETIN-4'-METHYLETHER-3-RHAMNOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; N-ACETYL-DJENKKOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; N-METHYL-BETA-PHENETHYLAMINE Flower: DUKE1992A; NARINGENIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; NARINGENIN-7-RHAMNOGLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; NEROLIDOL Flower: DUKE1992A; NIACIN Leaf 85 - 457 ppm DUKE1992A; NITROGEN Leaf 12,800 - 68,800 ppm DUKE1992A; NONACOSANE Flower: DUKE1992A; P-CRESOL Flower: DUKE1992A; PALMITIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; PHENYLALANINE Leaf 2,800 - 15,020 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,450 - 1,500 ppm DUKE1992A; PHOSPHORUS Leaf 840 - 4,519 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 2,000 - 2,700 ppm DUKE1992A; PIPECOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; PROLINE Leaf 4,080 - 21,890 ppm DUKE1992A; PROTEIN Leaf 80,000 - 430,000 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 209,000 - 550,000 ppm DUKE1992A; PRUNIN-O-6"-GALLATE Plant: DUKE1992A; QUERCETIN-3-0-RUTINOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A; RIBOFLAVIN Leaf 2 - 9 ppm DUKE1992A; SALICYLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A; SERINE Leaf 3,280 - 17,600 ppm DUKE1992A; SITOSTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A; STIGMASTEROL Seed: DUKE1992A; TANNINS Fruit 110,000 - 322,000 ppm DUKE1992A; THIAMIN Leaf 2 - 11 ppm DUKE1992A; THREONINE Leaf 2,000 - 10,730 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,050 - 1,100 ppm DUKE1992A; TRANS-3-METHYL-DEC-4-ENOIC-ACID Flower: DUKE1992A; TRIACONTANOL Leaf: DUKE1992A; TRYPTOPHAN Seed 440 - 450 ppm DUKE1992A; TYRAMINE Plant: DUKE1992A; TYROSINE Leaf 2,240 - 12,010 ppm DUKE1992A; VALINE Leaf 3,120 - 16,740 ppm DUKE1992A Seed 1,600 - 1,650 ppm DUKE1992A; WATER Leaf 814,000 ppm; DUKE1992A; ppm = parts per million tr = trace

ZONA GEOGRAFICA= Geografical zone: América del Sur extratropical.

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Distribución: Regiones Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O’Higgins, Maule, Nuble, Biobio, Araucania, Los Rios.

Usos medicinales: La corteza y los frutos se usan en pequenas dosis para curar heridas. La bebida obtenida de las semillas se utiliza como antidoto en casos de intoxicacion por alcaloides.

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Farmacodinamia - Acciones farmacológicas
Esta especie ha sido sujeta a muy pocos estudios farmacológicos hasta el momento. El tronco exuda una goma con propiedades similares a la goma arábiga. La infusión de hojas demostró un efecto contráctil arterial de manera dosis-dependiente en ratas antestesiadas, el cual fue prevenido por el antaresulta gonista alfa-adrenérgico fenoxibenzamina (Adrados et al., 1997). El extracto etanólico de la parte aérea demostró una inhibición in vitro de algunos hongos fitopatógenos (Quiroga et al., 2004). Por otro lado, se observó actividad citoprotectora a nivel gastroduodenal en ratones para el extracto del polen, en tanto en ratas produjo un retardo en la motilidad intestinal (Barcia et al., 2002). Extractos de A. caven demostraron propiedades antioxidantes sobre el radical DPPH y actividad antimicrobiana moderada sobre algunos agentes patógenos intrahospitalarios

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín.-- Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica.-- Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, p.67.

2) Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases [en línea]. [Consulta: 26 de Noviembre, 2008 ] Disponible en: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

3) Pometti, C.L. ;et al . Morphometric analysis of varieties of Acacia caven: (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae): Taxonomic inferences in the context of other Argentinean species. Plant Systematics and Evolution.2007, vol. 264, nº3-4, p. 239-249 .

4) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud.  Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005, p. 239.

5) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

6) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol.
Término aceptado: 08-Nov-2007