Geoffroea decorticans (Hook et Arn) Burk.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) G. achalensis exts. were tested for their antimicrobial activity against representative bacterial cultures.  Methanolic, aq., and aq. alc. exts. were active against Bacillus subtilis.  Fractionation of the methanolic ext. yielded 2 active fractions (F1 and F7).  The fractions were further fractionated by bioautog. and HPLC with UV detection.  The secoiridoids gentiopicroside and sweroside and the xanthone demethylbellidifolin were identified as the active compds. from the 2 fractions.  Three other compds. identified (bellidifolin, isobellidifolin, swertianin) were without antimicrobial activity.

2) Geoffroea decorticans, commonly known as "chanar" or "chanarcillo" is a bush or tree widely spread in Argentine and used in popular medicine as emollient, balsamic, antitussive and expectorant.  Using the technique of extn. by increasing the polarity of solvents was possible the isolation six compds. in the petroleum light ext., thirteen flavonoids in the Et acetate ext. and ten flavonoids in the methanol ext.

3) The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), (3R)-5,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (1) and (3R)-7-2'-3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (2) isolated from Geoffroea decorticans was evaluated against four different species of Aspergillus.  Their effect was compared with that displayed by synthetic products.  The antifungal activity was assayed by bioautography, hyphal radial growth, hyphal extent and microdilution in liquid medium.  The percentage of hyphal radial growth inhibition produced by EE varied between 18.4+/-0.1 and 39.6+/-0.2 for Aspergillus nomius VSC23 and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively; and the same value for 1 and 2 were between 31.2+/-0.1-60.8+/-1.5 and 28.9+/-0.7-57.2+/-0.6 for Aspergillus flavus (IEV 018) and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively.  The values of MIC/MFC determined for EE, 1 and 2 were compared with the actions of ascorbic and sorbic acids, and clotrimazole.  The sequence of antifungal potency was clotrimazole>1>2>ascorbic acid>sorbic acid>EE.  Consequently, EE as well as the purified substances from Geoffroea decorticans would be used as biopesticides against Aspergillus species.  The cytotoxicity was evaluated.

4) Thirty-nine native plant species were collected from the provinces of Chaco and Formosa, in northern Argentina, and were screened for antimicrobial activity.  The plants were dried and extracted thoroughly with methanol.  The dry extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, were tested for inhibition of microbial growth via microplate assay with an oxidation-reduction dye.  The test organisms were: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium.  Inhibition of respiratory activities in some of these microbial species was produced by the extracts of Astronium balansae, Geoffroea decorticans, Peltophorum dubium, Geoffroea spinosa, Lantana balansae, Prosopis kuntzei, Prosopis ruscifolia and Bulnesia sarmientoi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.08 to 0.5 mg dry matter/ml.  Further in vitro experiments measuring the growth of S. aureus in liquid culture confirmed that all of the above extracts at 2 x MIC were able to inhibit bacterial growth effectively, and that some of them (A. balansae, G. decorticans, P. dubium, G. spinosa, P. kuntzei and B. sarmientoi) were able to reduce the initial number of viable counts by at least one order of magnitude in 10 hours, indicating that these extracts should be investigated further for the possible presence of bactericidal components.

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary
Geoffroea decorticans (Leguminoseae) is a tree that grows in several regions of Argentina (from Jujuy and Formosa to Río Negro), Bolivia, Southern Peru, Chile, Western Paraguay and Uruguay. Commonly known by the name of chañar, the different parts of this species are used as emollient, antihemorrhagic, contraceptive, and in the treatment of hemorrhoids, although perhaps the most important use is related to its effectiveness in the treatment of respiratory disorders. In spite of the importance of chañar in local popular medicine, serious pharmacological research has not yet been performed in order to validate the traditional uses of this plant.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas, corteza.

ACCION FARMACOLOGICA= Pharmacological action: Emoliente (hojas), béquico (corteza).

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Proximate, fatty acid and sterol compositions of the oil were determined to ascertain the general characteristics of the seed and seed oil of Geoffroea decorticans (Leguminosae) originating from central area of Argentina. Proteins represented 21.6% (w/w) of the seed. Seed oil was extracted with n-hexane, yielding 47.2% (w/w). The saponification and iodine values indicated that the oil could be classified among the peanut group of oils. These facts were supported by the detailed fatty acid composition determined by capillary gas chromatography. The ratio of total unsaturated to total saturated fatty acids in the oil was 5.94, with oleic acid being the dominant fatty acid (53.7%). The sterol composition showed higher percentages of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The results obtained indicated that, with their attractive properties, G. decorticans is a good candidate for further studies to evaluate their future commercial prospect.

ZONA GEOGRAFICA= Geografical zone: desde Perú al S. de Argentina. 

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Distribución: Regiones Arica y Parinacota, Tarapaca, Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo.

Usos medicinales: La corteza, hojas y flores del chanar poseen propiedades expectorantes. La corteza hervida se usa como expectorante y antiasmatico, el mismo uso se le da al arrope.
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Enfermedad o síntoma
Tos

Moquillo (en animales)

Parte utilizada
Fruto

Forma de preparación
Arrope

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, p.71.

2) LAMARQUE, A.L., et al. Chemical evaluation of Geoffroea decorticans seeds as source of oil and protein. Grasas y Aceites. 2000, vol.51, nº4, p.241-243.
 
3) NADINIC, Elena L., et al. Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from Gentianella achalensis (Gilg) Ho & Liu (Gentianaceae) extracts. Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense. 2002, vol.21, nº2, p.123-130.
 
4) SILVA, Raul A.; Lopez de Ruiz, Rosa E.; Ruiz, Sohar O. Phytochemical study of Geoffroea decorticans (Gill. ex Hook. et Arn) Burk. Leguminosae (Fabaceae) flowers.  Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense. 2004, vol.23, nº4, p.524-526.
 
5) QUIROGA, Emma N, et al. Antimycotic activity of 5'-prenylisoflavanones of the plant Geoffroea decorticans, against Aspergillus species. International journal of food microbiology. 2009, vol.132, nº1, p.42-46.
 
6) SALVAT, A., et al. Antimicrobial activity in methanolic extracts of several plant species from northern Argentina. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2004, vol.11, nº2-3, p.230-234.

7) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

8) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

9) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Geoffroea decorticans (Hook et Arn) Burk.
Término aceptado: 08-Nov-2007