Allium sativum

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

The intron sequence of chloroplast rpS16 and the secondary structure of its pre-mRNA were characterized for the first time in 26 Allium sativum accessions of different ecologo-geographical origins and seven related Allium species. The boundaries and main stem-loop consensus sequences were identified for all six domains of the intron. Polymorphism was estimated for the total intron and its regions. The structural regions of the rpS16 intron proved to be heterogeneous for mutation rate and spectrum. Mutations were most abundant in domains II and IV, and transition predominated in domains I, III, V, and VI. In addition to structural elements and motifs typical for group IIB introns, several Allium-specific micro- and macrostructural mutations were revealed. A 290-bp deletion involving domains III and IV and part of domain V was observed in A. altaicum, A. fistulosum, and A. schoenoprasum. Several indels and nucleotide substitutions were found to cause a deviation of the pre-mRNA secondary structure from the consensus model of group II introns. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2009.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Dientes del ajo.  

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Estimulante, carminativo, aperitivo, digestivo, antiespasmódico, vermífugo, hipotensor, antireumático.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Profilaxis de la aterosclerosis (adultos): El equivalente de 6-10 mgde aliína (aproximadamente 3-5 mg de alicina) al día , cantidad que normalmenteequivale al contenido de una dieta de ajo o 0,5-1 g de polvo de ajo desecado. Infecciones de las vias respiratorias superiores(adultos) : 2-4 g de polvo de ajo o 2-4 ml tintura (1:5, 45 % etanol ), tres veces al día.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Compuestos azufrados (0,1-0,2%): a )solubles en agua: derivados de la cisteína: (S-alil-cisteína; S-alil-mercaptocisteína, S-metilcisteína y gamma-glutamil-cisteína). Caracterizan por ser inodoros. b) Solubles en aceite: Sulfuro dialílico; disulfuro dialílico, alicina (u óxido de disulfurodialílico), trisulfuro dialílico; trisulfuro alilmetílico; aliina (precursor de la alicina), ditiinas, viniloditiinas y ajoene. Caracterizan por ser olorosos. Compuestos no azufrados: allixina (compuesto fenólico), saponinas, polisacáridos (fructosanos), mucílago, sales de potasio, óxido de hierro, sílice, calcio, ácido salicílico (8 ugrs por cada 100gr), niquel (10 microgramos %), selenio (20 microgramos %), trazas de vitamina E, niacina (0,7mg), vitamina C (14mg%), tiamina (0,12mg) y germanio.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay, Argentina.

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Hierba, Andino, Costa

Uso:
1. Tos,  Bronquitis,  Resfrío  /  Tubérculo,  fresco  /  Oral  /  Poner  3  dedos  de  ajo,  1  cebolla  china, Matico, Escorcionera, Eucalipto, Vira Vira, azúcar blanco y 1/2 litro de agua o leche de vaca en olla y hervir por 3 minutos. Tomar caliente, 2 cucharas dos veces al día por 1 semana. Se puede comer crudo.

2. Hematomas, Artritis, Reumatismo, Mal Aire / Tubérculo, fresco / Tópico / Machucar 250g de ajo. Añadir 10g Eucalipto, 90g de Alcohol, Pacra, Chuchuhuasi y Jengibre. Dejar en 1 litro de alcohol por 1 semana. Masajear y friccionar en área afectada. Friccionar 1-2 veces por día como se necesita

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Origen y ecología:
Probablemente de origen siberiano y Asia Central desde aqui a la cuenca mediterránea y resto del mundo. Introducida. Cultivado. No amenaza.

Propiedades e indicaciones terapéuticas:
- Derivadas de la experiencia de uso tradicional:
Tradicionalmente se ha utilizado para tratar la bronquitis crónica, los catarracos recivivantes, la gripe, el asma bronquial y la tos ferina
- Según el contenido en principios activos o ensayos farmacológicos:
Devido principalmente a la alicina y sus productos de transformación produce un efecto ligeramente hipolipemiante (coleserol y triglicéridos), antiagregante plaquetario, activador de la fibrinolisis, vasodilatador periférico (con efecto antihipertensivo) antimicrobiano (antibacteriano y antifúngico) y antihelmítico (especialmente frente a oxiuros).
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Enfermedad o síntoma
Presión alta

Dolor de muela

Parte utilizada
Bulbo

Forma de preparación
Sin preparación

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Se coloca un diente de ajo sobre la muela

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota de alcance (en)

Garlic clove: cough, belly pain, fever, parasites and worms, snakebite, vomiting

Uses: local pain, worm, flu, cough, inflammation, cholesterol, hypertension                                                 

Origin: Belize, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, United States                 

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Bulb: In Surinam, consumed to improve poor blood circulation to the heart. In Guyana, consumed raw to strengthen the lungs, boiled and eaten to alleviate intestinal gas (wind, flatulence) and used in a cure for Guinea worm with Allium cepa and other ingredients.

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In some studies, garlic has been shown to reduce cholesterol (LDL) an blood pressure (possibly through diuresis) and reduce atherosclerotic plaque; however, recent studies show it to be ineffective in lowering cholesterol in patients with moderately high hypercholesterolemia. Garlic’s active components allicin, S-allyl cysteine, and diallyl sulfide may be potent inhibitors of the initiation of carcinogenesis. Studies have shown decreased risk of stomach and colon cancer in patients ingesting fresh or cooked garlic cloves (but not commercial garlic tablets or powders). Allicin also reduces clotting, and this may cause problems in some people, especially if surgery is needed. Allicin has antibacterial and antifungal effects, and garlic poultices were used on wounds in WW II when antiobiotics were not available.

Part used::
Bulbs

Origin:
Asia
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Range. Central Asia. In Myanmar, grown mostly in Shan State as a cultivated plant.

Uses. Root (Bulb): Garlic is used to support blood and eye health, alleviate fevers and skin disorders, increase perspiration and semen production, stimulate the bowel and the bladder, and to promote virility and longevity. A half teaspoon of garlic powder, steeped in honey and taken at bedtime, is used as a vitalizing tonic to stimulate appetite and pro­mote healthy sleep. It is used to break up phlegm, as well as to strengthen the blood and the gall bladder. Sap from cut garlic bulbs is a remedy for skin conditions, including ring­worm, scabies, eczema, freckles and similar facial skin discolorations. Garlic milk, made by boiling seven large bulbs in 40 ticals (ca. 0.5 kg) of pure milk, cooling the mixture for about 10 minutes, and boiling it a second time, is ingested daily for hypertension. A tea­spoon of garlic juice mixed with a bit of water and sugar is used to treat whooping cough; garlic juice is taken for coughs, bloated stomachs, and sores on the stomach. To alleviate flatulence, garlic is soaked in sesame oil with a bit of salt and ingested before meals. In­fants are given single roasted garlic bulbs for colic and indigestion. For goiter, two drops of garlic oil are applied to the throat, as well as ingested three times a day. Garlic juice mixed with salt is consumed or rubbed at the temples as a remedy for headaches. Because of its germicidal properties, garlic is used to treat lung problems, deep wounds and sores; its juice is also rubbed on the body to ease aches and pains. A mixture consisting of two cloves of garlic boiled in sesame oil is poured warm into the ear as a remedy for deafness, infections, and aches. Garlic is a component of medicines that treat incompletely healed wounds, irregular menstruation, and various malaises (term used where cause of illness not specified in Agriculture Corporation 1980) of men.
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Origin:
Native to Central Asia. Cultivated all over India.

Action:
Antibiotic, bacteriostatic, fungicide, anthelmintic, antithrombic, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic. Also used for upper respiratory tract infections and catarrhal conditions.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida.-- Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937, p.13.  

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, pp. 202-217.

3) RYZHOVA, N.N. ; KHOLDA, O.A. ; KOCHIEVA, E.Z. Structural characteristics of the chloroplast rps16 intron in allium sativum and related allium species. Molecular Biology. 2009, vol.43, nº5, p.766-775.

4) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripción.  4ª  ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p.p. 99-100

5) Barret, Bruce Economic Botany vol. 48, nro. 1 .-- p. 8-20 1994

6)  Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

9) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

10) Lista de plantas/Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas. Graphicart, 2015 .-- p. 75 - 239.

11) Cruz Suárez, Jorge S. / Más de 100 plantas medicinaes : Medicina popular Canaria. La obra Social de Gran Canarias: Las Palmas de Gran Canarias, 2007. - 258 p.

12) Hull, Kathleen; Photog. Hull, Meredith /Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

13) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

14) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

15) Khare, C.P./ Indian Medicinal Plants. -- Nueva Dheli: Springer, 2007 . - p. 836.

Allium sativum
Término aceptado: 09-Nov-2007