Eucalyptus globulus Labill

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hoja.

ACCION FARMACOLOGICA= Pharmacological action: Resfrios.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Las hojas jóvenes se usan en vahos como descongestionante de las vías respiratorias.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Aceite esencial (1,5 a 3,5%): cuyo componente principal es el 1,8-cineol o eucaliptol. Otros componentes minoritarios del aceite esencial son aromadendreno y globulos. Ácidos fenoles: gálico, gentísico, cafeico y ferúlico. Flavonoides: rutósido, quercitrósido, isoquercitrósido, hiperósido y eucaliptina (5-hidroxi-6,8-dimetil-7,4´-dimetoxi-flavona). Euglobales y macrocarpales: terpenos resultantes de la condensación de una acetogenina de tipo floroglucinol y un mono- o sesquterpeno, respectivamente. Triterpenos derivados del ácido ursólico (2-4%). Taninos hidrolizables. Según la RFE, la hoja entera desecada debe contener como mínimo 20ml/kg de aceite esencial, y 15ml/kg la hoja cortada.

ZONA GEOGRAFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

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DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Previous flow cytometry (FCM) analyses delivered nearly equal mean values of nuclear 2C DNA content for Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden and E. urophylla S. T. Blake (1.33pg and 1.34pg, respectively), whereas E. globulus Labill. presented distinct mean values (1.09, 1.13 and 1.40). These differences have been attributed to the different methodological approach, utilised plant cultivar and presence of intrinsic metabolic compounds that affect fluorochrome fluorescence. In the present study, a FCM and image cytometry (ICM) design, following international consensus criteria, were adopted to reassess the nuclear DNA contents of the above-mentioned Eucalyptus species. Statistical analyses revealed either similar or discrepant nuclear DNA contents, depending on the standard species used and whether FCM or ICM was employed. Our results demonstrated that 2C DNA values obtained by FCM and ICM were most uniform when Solanum lycopersicum was used as a standard. Moreover, the values obtained for E. grandis and E. urophylla were close, but differed as much as 24.63% in relation to previous data, and E. globulus proportionally varied up to 25%. New DNA content values are suggested for these eucalypt species. © 2009 CSIRO.

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Common mallow (Malva sylvestris) is widely used in Mediterranean and European traditional medicine for treatment of external and internal inflammation and injuries and is also locally regarded as a wild food herb.  Since antioxidants and free radical scavengers can also have anti-inflammatory effects, exts. from different mallow plant parts (leaves, flowers, immature fruits, leafy flowered stems) were examd. for nutraceutical potential (antioxidant properties) and chem. compn.  Mallow leaves showed very strong antioxidant properties, including radical-scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.43 mg/mL), reducing power (0.07 mg/mL), and lipid peroxidn. inhibition in liposomes (0.04 mg/mL) and brain cells homogenates (0.09 mg/mL).  The leaves were also richest in nutraceuticals, such as powerful antioxidants (phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols), unsatd. fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid), and minerals.

2) Antioxidant capacity of the aq. ext. of Malva sylvestris was measured by its ability to scavenge the DPPH and superoxide anion radicals and to induce the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex.  Anal. of the ext., carried out by different chromatog. techniques, led to the isolation of eleven compds.: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, Me 2-hydroxydihydrocinnamate, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, a sesquiterpene, (3R,7E)-3-hydroxy-5,7-megastigmadien-9-one, and (10E,15Z)-9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10,15-dienoic acid.  The antioxidant activities of all these compds. are reported.

3) The isolation and structure of a phytoalexin, malvone A (2-methyl-3-methoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is reported.  Malvone A formation is induced in Malva sylvestris L. by the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae.  In a turbimetric assay for toxicity to V. dahliae, it had an ED50 value of 24 mg/mL.  The structure of malvone A was detd. by MS and NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray crystallog. anal.  The X-ray anal. showed water mols. were located in channels that run along the a-axis.


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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts

A composition for buccal absorption of nicotine for the purpose of smoking cessation.      Kosik, Dobromil; Dittrich, Milan.  (Heglund, A.S., Czech Rep.).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2010),     17pp.  CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2010091649  A2  20100819  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CL, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PE, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TH, TJ.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, MT, NL, NO, PT, SE, SM, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2010-CZ11  20100203.  Priority: CZ  2009-80  20090211; CZ  2009-829  20091209.  CAN 153:318942    AN 2010:1045869    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2010 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

Compn. intended for buccal absorption of nicotine into the system circulation and distribution to the central nervous system for the purpose of smoking cessation or nicotine substitution in conditions adverse for smoking according to the invention contains nicotine soln. in form of a base and/or its salt with org. acid in concn. 0.01 to 8.00 wt% and substances with mucolytic effect.  Single application dosage contains 0.05 to 3.00 mg of nicotine.  Thus, compn. comprised (in wt%): nicotine 1.00, citric acid 0.95, acetylcysteine 25.00, potassium sorbate 0.10, sodium benzoate 0.10, sucralose 0.07, glycerin 5.00, grape seed ext. 1.50, hydrogenated pegylated castor oil 0.12, sodium q.s. pH 7.0-9.0, water up to 100.00 g.

Nota de alcance (en)

The infusion of the leaves is reported to be an antitussive, expectorant, a pectoral and thoracic (Cabrera n.d.; Gonzàlez S. 1979; Martìnez 1969; Sànchez C. 1981).

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Eucalyptus oil (eucalyptol) extracted from the leaves of this plant helps open up respiratory passages in colds, bronchitis, and other respiratory conditions. It also is antiseptic and has been used externally as a treatment for sores and ulcers and as a gargle for sore throats. In its native Australia, the plant grows as a tree that can reach heights of greater than 400 feet, but in our garden it does not survive the cold of winter. For the first several years, the plant has round leaves closely applied to the stems. Later the leaves are long and thin and hang down from the stems. Koalas eat a diet consisting almost completely of eucalyptus leaves. They are one of the few species that can digest the leaves containing several toxic compounds.

Part used::
Leaves

Origin:
Australia
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Range. Tasmania, Australia. Grows as a cultivar in Myanmar’s temperate zone, but can also be cultivated throughout the country.

Uses. Sharp and hot in taste, the leaves, oil, sap, and roots are used in medicinal preparations.

Sap: Given as a cure for asthma, to relieve constipation, to control bloat­ing and flatulence, and to clear the brain.

Leaf: For bacterial skin infections, impetigo and erysipelas, the juice is applied topically, or the leaves are used as a poultice. The oil is also used for skin sores and infections; mixed with equal amounts of olive oil, it is applied topically to relieve inflamed or aching joints. Made into an ointment, it is used to treat burns and as a rub for asthma. Vapors from a decoction of the leaves are inhaled to relax and open airways constricted during asthma attacks. The leaves are used to treat bronchitis, fever, poisoning, whooping cough, and surgical wounds. They are also boiled to create a steam bath used as a remedy for colds and headaches.

Root: Used to make laxatives.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937, pp. 59-60.

2) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripción: plantas medicinales. 3ª. ed. Barcelona : Masson, 1999, p. 235.

3) PRAA, M.M.; CARVALHO, C.R.; NOVAES, C.R.D.B. Nuclear DNA content of three Eucalyptus species estimated by flow and image cytometry. Australian Journal of Botany. 2009, vol.57, nº6, p.524-531.
 
4) ALONSO PAZ, Eduardo ; BASSAGODA, María Julia ; FERREIRA, Fernando. Yuyos : uso racional de las plantas medicinales. 2da. ed. Montevideo : Fin de siglo, 2007, p.68.

5) BARROS, Lillian; CARVALHO, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, Isabel. Leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems of Malva sylvestris: A comparative study of the nutraceutical potential and composition. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010, vol.48, nº6, p.1466-1472.
 
6) DELLAGRECA, Marina, et al. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Malva sylvestris. Natural Product Communications. 2009, vol.4, nº7, p.893-896.
 
7) VESHKUROVA, Olga, et al. Malvone A, a phytoalexin found in Malva sylvestris (family Malvaceae). Phytochemistry (Elsevier). 2006, vol.67, nº21, p.2376-2379.

8) Nicholson Michael S. ; Arzhennithe, Charles . Economic Botany. vol. 47 . --p. 184-192 1993   

9) Hull, Kathleen; Photog. Hull, Meredith /Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

10) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

Eucalyptus globulus Labill
Término aceptado: 16-Nov-2007