Aristolochia triangularis Cham.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Tallo, raíz, corteza. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: antihelmíntica, antiespasmódica y antihistérica, sedativa, emenagoga y antipiretica, como antiinflamatoria, antirreumática, antiséptica, y para mordeduras de culebras. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Se ha registrado la presencia de los siguientes compuestos en diferentes partes de la planta: alcaloides alantoína; liganos: 3-(3,4-dimetoxibencil)- 2-(3,4-metiléndioxibencil) butirolactol, cubebina, 3`,4`-dimetoxi-3`,4`-desmetiléndioxicubebina, 3,4-dimetoxi-3,4-desmetiléndioxicubebina, alfa- y beta-metilcubebina, (-)-galbacina, hinokinina, 3,4-dimetoxi-3,4-desmetiléndioxihino-kinina; diterpenos (-)-kaur-15-en17-ol, ent-kaur-15-en-17-ol, (-)-kaur-16-eno, entkaur-16-eno, kaur-16-en-19-ol, ácido kaur-16-en-19-óico, 16alfa, 17-epoxikaumo, ent-16-beta(H)-kaurano, 16alfa, 17-diolentkaurano; sesquiterpenos: nerolidol, R-trans-nerolidol, y (-)-alfa-ylangeno (-) alfa-copaeno, y gama-elemeno, esteroide: stigmast-4-en-3,6-diona, y ácido aristolóquico. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil, Paraguay, Argentina. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The effects of infusions of Aristolochia triangularis and Stevia rebaudiana, plants used by rural and indigenous populations of Paraguay for the control of fertility, on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. meristems were investigated.  Mitotic phase indices after 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours of treatment with infusions of A. triangularis showed a typical c-mitotic action, and recovery was normal in all cases.  In contrast, S. rebaudiana had no specific toxicological effects on the cell cycle, which suggests that its contraceptive properties may not be connected with chromosome cycle.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

In this report, a mol. phylogeny based on the plastid gene matK and on the region between the genes trnL and trnF, and a chem. relationship based on the pattern of sesquiterpenes, is proposed for Aristolochia species from southeastern Brazil. We found that Aristolochia is a monophyletic genus and species considered to be derived contain labdanoic acids (LAs) in their leaves. The phenetic relationship recovered with sesquiterpenes did not agree with the phylogenetic relationships for Aristolochia, and three main clusters were recognized, namely, germacrene-D, germacrene-C and Z-caryophyllene groups. The presence of different sesquiterpene structures in species that are phylogenetically closely related may reflect adaptations to avoid predation of herbivores specialized in feeding on Aristolochiaceae plants. 

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary
Aristoloquia triangularis (Aristoloquiaceae), commonly known as milhombres, is a vine that can be found in Northeastern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul). As in the case of many other species of this genus, milhombres is popularly used as a treatment for snakebite, although many other medicinal uses have been attributed to this plant. Although there are no relevant pharmacological studies, it is important to note that some in vitro investigations have shown cytotoxic and antitumour activity in the extracts, suggesting that this species could be of some interest to experimental oncology. However, the presence of aristolochic acid, a toxic compound to man, indicates that the internal use of milhombres should not be recommended.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas . Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, p.49-51.

2) SILVA-BRANDAO, Karina Lucas; SOLFERINI, Vera Nisaka; TRIGO, Jose Roberto. Chemical and phylogenetic relationships among Aristolochia L. (Aristolochiaceae) from southeastern Brazil. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2006, vol.34, nº4, p.291-302.
 
3) SCHVARTZMAN, J B; KRIMER, D B; MORENO, Azorero R. Cytological effects of some medicinal plants used in the control of fertility. Experientia. 1977, vol.33, nº5, p.663-5.

4) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud.  Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005, p. 330.

5) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

Aristolochia triangularis Cham.
Término aceptado: 13-May-2008