Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

Nota de alcance (en)

Origin
The species probably comes originally from the Caribbean Islands (West Indies).

Occurrence
Central America, West Indies and South America. In Venezuela, the species is amply distributed in all hot and temperate regions.

Ethnobotanical and general use

The plant is said to have 36 different applications.

Nutritional use
The fruit is edible; it encloses a slimy and astringent pulp which is enjoyed by cattle and is therefore used as a fodder. The tree is appropriate for afforestation on steep slopes and on poor soils. It can also be planted in gardens and parks. The bast fiber of the young stem is employed in making rope. The grayish fibrous wood is coarse- grained and light, but firm and strong, and is used locally for general carpentry, interior construction and furniture, for ribs of small boats, barrel staves, shoe lasts, paneling, slack cooperage, boxes and crates, tool handles and for fuel and fine charcoal to make gun powder.

Medical use
The parts used are leaves, bark, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds. Leaf. Leaves and roots are said to be antidysenteric. Macerated leaves applied on the skin are used against elephantiasis and cutaneous diseases. Bark. A gum is prepared from the slime of the bark for promoting hair growth; a decoction of the bark or the bark macerated without heating prevents loss of hair. The slime of the bark is also used against diseases of the skin. A syrup or a decoction of the bark is used to cure elephantiasis and to clarify syrup in sugar manufacture. A decoction (30 gin 150 ml water) is applied as a depurative against bubo, to heal burns, inflammations, and first symptoms of blindness. A decoction is also used in a bath against sunstroke and as a contractor of the uterus. An infusion calms liver, spleen and kidney, macerated in d ecoction it is used for urethral and intestinal affections and for haemorrhoids. A lavation is applied against dysentery. In a bath, the bark cures the allergy caused by manzanillo (Hippomane mancinella L., Euphorbiaceae). The bark is also a pplied against asthma, to facilit ate delivery at birth and to cure diseases of the liver. Root. The root is antidysenteric, antidiarrhoeic, diuretic and cures measles. It is considered to be the most active part of the plant, and is also applied for baldness. Fruit. The fruit is used against flu and as an infusion with syrup against irritations of the stomach and against uterine cramps.

Method of use
Seed. Mainly used for respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. The bark is used in decoction or infusion, in the form of a lavation or bath or as a syrup; or the bark is macerated and the liquid is taken to treat the mucosa of the intestine. Externally a decoction or maceration is used to stop loss of hair. The fruit is applied in infusion or decoction or is macerated. Leaves are macerated on the skin to cure diseases of the skin. The shoot is used in the form of a tea. Flowers are applied in infusion. Seeds are applied in decoction

Healing properties
Antidysenteric, antidiarrhoeic, astringent, refreshing, diuretic, emollient, febrifugal, against asthma, elephantiasis, irritations of stomach and liver, against haemorrhoids, as a vulnerary and against burns, against irritations of the intestine and the urethra, to soothe the contractions of the uterus and as a pectoral medicine.

Chemical contents
Starch, tannins, saponins, alkaloids; caffeine (leaf). Betulin, Beta-sitosterol, friedelin, unsaturated esters, cardenolides, bufadienolides, tlavonoids, anthocyanins (bark). Flavonoids, kaempferol, kaempferitin and quercetin (flowers). Shoot and root have bactericidal activities.

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Stem: Decoction used as a wash to facilitate childbirth by the Surinam Tirio. Inner bark in a poultice to dress ulcerous sores in Guyana.

Nota de alcance (en)

The infusion of the fruits is said to be an antitussive and a pectoral (Sánchez C. 1981).

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Corteza.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Sudorífico (corteza), emoliente, desobstruente (corteza), astringente, depurativo, antisifilíltico.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Un screeining fitoquímico preliminar de hojas realizado por Weniger; et al., (1984) reportó la ausencia de alcaloides, esteroides, terpenoides, compuestos fenólicos, flavonoides, taninos y saponinas. La hoja contiene cafeína (Freise, 1935). El tamizaje fitoquímico preliminar indica que no hay ninguno de los compuestos mayores. Los frutos tienen un néctar rico en una fina miel. La corteza contiene betulina, beta-sitosterol, friedelina, ésteres insaturados, cardenólidos, bufadienólidos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Las flores contienen flavonoides como kaempferol, kaempferitina y quercetina (Ronquillo, et al., 1989).

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: América tropical y subtropical. 

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Parte empleada: hoja.
Usos: dolor de huesos y estreñimiento.
Preparación: para el estreñimiento, hervir en agua unas hojas y un pedazo de palo mulato rojo. Tomar un vaso por la mañana y tarde, hasta sentir alivio.

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Origen:
Nativo de México hasta Sur América y Caribe, s encuentra en matorrales secos o húmedos, en pastos y bosques secundarios, principalmente a la altura del mar, pero puede llegar hasta 1,200 m s.n.m. (STANDLEY & STEYERMARK, 1949); introducida en los trópicos de Asia y África (ADAMS, 1972). En Panamá esta especie se encuentra en Bocas Del Toro, Coclé, Chiriquí, Colón, Darién, Herrera, Los Santos, Panamá, Kunayala, Veraguas (CORREA, et al, 2004).

Usos etnomédicos y modo de empleo:
En Mesoamérica y el Caribe, el cocimiento del fruto se usa para tratar diarrea, gripe (MORTON, 1977) y problemas renales (ALTSCHUL, 1975); la infusión y cocimiento de la corteza se usa para tratar malaria, sífilis, gastritis (MENDIETA & DEL AMO, 1981; CÁCERES, 1996), calvicie, gonorrea, elefantiasis (DIAZ, 1976, IIN, 1978; DUKE, 1986), sarampión, afecciones respiratorias y dérmicas (ROBINEAU, 1991; ROIG, 1994); las hojas y raíces se usan contra disentería (ROIG, 1994); la corteza de la raíz contra hemorroides y disentería (NUÑEZ, 1986). En Jamaica, el extracto de la corteza se administra oralmente a los pacientes con lepra (AYENSU, 1981 y elefantiasis (ASPREY & THORNTON, 1955). El fruto y corteza se usan en decocción para tratar hemorragias. En Colombia y México se usa la corteza para facilitar el parto; así mismo el fruto y la corteza se usan en medicina veterinaria como purgante del ganado y la decocción de hojas para expulsar la placenta (ASPROAL, 1999). Tópicamente la corteza se usa para tratar enfermedades dermatomucosas (dermatitis, erisipela, erupciones, estiomatitis, fracturas, inflamaciones, piodermia, quemaduras, úlceras) (MORTON, 1977; VASQUEZ, 1982; CÁCERES, et al, 1987b). Todas las partes del árbol tienen algún uso artesanal o industrial (NIEMBRO, 1990). Se le atribuyen propiedades aperitiva, depurativa, desinflamante, diurética, febrífuga, lipolítica, sudorífica, tónica y vulneraria (GUZMÁN, 1975; CÁCERES, 1996).

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, pp.127-128.

2) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, pp.545-546.

3) South American medicinal plants : botany, remedial properties, and general use / I. Roth, H. Lindorf. Berlin ; New York : Springer, c2002. -- p. 492.

4) Nicholson Michael S. ; Arzhennithe, Charles . Economic Botany. vol. 47 . --p. 184-192 1993

5) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

6) Gupta, Mahabir P.; Santana, Ana Isabel; Espinosa, Alex/ Plantas medicinales de Panamá. sd: sd. - p. sd.

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
Término aceptado: 06-Dic-2007