Melia azedarach L

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Plants were regenerated by shoot multiplication from four clones of Melia azedarach L. during 12 mo. of subculturing. One hundred and one of these plants were examined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. All regenerated plants showed at least one polymorphism. However, no chromosome number alterations were observed. The pattern of variation obtained by principal coordinated analysis showed a random distribution of variation among regenerated plants and their controls, indicating that genetic alterations were not cumulative during in vitro culture. Similar results were found using Shannon's index, which revealed that 50% of the observed diversity resided among plants coming from the same subculture generation. This high intraclonal variation does not provide a clear scenario for predicting the amount of culture time required to preserve genetic fidelity in commercially micropropagated M. azedarach plants. Our work suggests that other mechanisms, such as chimerism, contribute to intraclonal heterogeneity in vitro.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas, planta entera.

ACCION FARMACOLOGICA= Pharmacological action: Contra las lombrices, amarga, purgante

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Chemicals 1,5-DIHYDROXY-8-METHOXY-2-METHYLANTHRAQUINONE-3-O-ALPHA-L... Plant: DUKE1992A ; 1,8-DIHYDROXY-2-METHYLANTHRAQUINONE-3-O-BETA-D-GALACTOPYRANOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A ; 1-ALPHA-METHOXY-1,2-DIHYDROEPOXYAZADIRADIONE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; 1-CINNAMYLMELIANOLINE Plant: DUKE1992A ; 1-OCTEN-3-OL Wood: DUKE1992A ; 1-TERPEN-4-OL Wood: DUKE1992A ; 17-EPIAZADIRADIONE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; 21,23,24,25-DIEPOXI-TIRUCALL-7-EN-21-OL Fruit: DUKE1992A ; 24-METHYLENE-CYCLOARTANOL Root: DUKE1992A ; 24-METHYLENECYCLOARTENONE Root: DUKE1992A ; 3-BETA-HYDROXY-5-CAMPESTEN-7-ONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; 3-BETA-HYDROXY-STIGMAST-5-EN-7-ONE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; 3-OCTAL Wood: DUKE1992A ; 3-PHENETHYL-ALCOHOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; 4',5-DIHYDROXYFLAVONE-7-O-BETA-L-RHAMNOPYRANOSYL...BK Plant: DUKE1992A ; 4-CAMPESTEN-3-ONE Root: DUKE1992A ; 6-BETA-HYDROXY-STIGMAST-4-EN-3-ONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; 6-HYDROXY-7-METHOXY-COUMARIN Leaf: DUKE1992A ; 7-ACETYLNEOTRICHILENONE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; 7-KETO-BETA-SITOSTEROL Fruit: DUKE1992A ; 7-O-ALPHA-L-RHAMNOPYRANOSYL-(1-4)-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIL Plant: DUKE1992A ; 7-TRICOSANOL Fruit: DUKE1992A ; ACETIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A ; ALKALOIDS Bark 400 ppm; DUKE1992A Root 800 ppm; DUKE1992A ; ALPHA-COPAENE Wood: DUKE1992A ; ALPHA-TERPINEOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; ARGININE Seed: DUKE1992A ; AROMADENDRENE Wood: DUKE1992A ; ASTRAGALIN Flower: DUKE1992A ; AZADARACHTIN Fruit: DUKE1992A ; AZADARINE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; AZARIDINE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; AZEDARACHOL Root Bark: DUKE1992A ; BAKALACTONE Wood: DUKE1992A ; BAKAYANIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A ; BAKAYANIN Root: DUKE1992A ; BENZOIC-ACID Root: DUKE1992A ; BENZYL-ACETATE Wood: DUKE1992A ; BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Wood: DUKE1992A ; BETA-PHENYLACETATE Wood: DUKE1992A ; BETA-SITOSTEROL Root: DUKE1992A ; BETA-SITOSTEROL-3-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Root: DUKE1992A ; CAFFEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A ; CALCIUM Leaf 25,500 ppm; DUKE1992A Seed 2,310 ppm; DUKE1992A ; CAPROIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A ; CARBOHYDRATES Plant 586,000 ppm; CRC ; CARVACROL Essential Oil: DUKE1992A ; CATECHIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; CHAVICOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; CINNAMIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A Leaf: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A ; CIS-3-N-HEXEN-1-OL Wood: DUKE1992A ; CIS-P-MENTHEN-1-OL Wood: DUKE1992A ; CITRONELLYL-ACETATE Wood: DUKE1992A ; CREOSOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; CUBENOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; CYCLOEUCALENOL Fruit: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A ; CYSTINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; DIEPOXYAZADIRADIONE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; DL-CATECHOL Bark: DUKE1992A ; ELEMENE Wood: DUKE1992A ; EO Plant 200 ppm; DUKE1992A ; EPI-MELIANOL Fruit: DUKE1992A ; EPICUBENOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; ESCULETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A ; EUGENOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; FAT Seed 40,000 - 400,000 ppm DUKE1992A ; FERULIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A ; FIBER Seed 116,000 ppm; DUKE1992A ; FRAXINELLONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; FURFURYL-ALCOHOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; GEDUNIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; GERANYL-ACETATE Wood: DUKE1992A ; GLUCOSE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; GLUTAMIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A ; GLYCINE Plant: DUKE1992A ; GUM Plant: DUKE1992A ; HYPERIN Flower: DUKE1992A ; KAEMPFEROL Plant: DUKE1992A ; KAEMPFEROL-3-0-RUTINOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A ; KILACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; KULACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; KULINONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; KULOLACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; LEUCINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; LINALYL-ACETATE Wood: DUKE1992A ; LYSINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; MANGROVINE Plant: DUKE1992A ; MARGOSINE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; MELANOL Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELDENIN Seed: DUKE1992A ; MELIANDIOL Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIANIN-A Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIANIN-B Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIANONE Fruit: DUKE1992A ; MELIANTRIOL Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIATOXIN-A-1 Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIATOXIN-A-2 Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIATOXIN-B-1 Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELIATOXIN-B-2 Plant: DUKE1992A ; MELICITRIN Flower: DUKE1992A ; MELIOTANNIC-ACID Fruit: DUKE1992A ; METHIONINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; METHYLKULONATE Plant: DUKE1992A ; MUUROLINE Wood: DUKE1992A ; N-HEPTANOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; N-HEXANOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; NEO-BAKAYANIN Fruit: DUKE1992A ; NEROL Wood: DUKE1992A ; NIMBIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; NIMBININ Seed: DUKE1992A ; NIMBIOL Bark: DUKE1992A ; NIMBOLIDIN-A Fruit: DUKE1992A ; NIMBOLIDIN-B Fruit: DUKE1992A ; NIMBOLININ-A Fruit: DUKE1992A ; OCHCINAL Plant: DUKE1992A ; OCHINOLAL Fruit: DUKE1992A ; OHCHININ Fruit: DUKE1992A ; OHCHINOLIDE-A Fruit: DUKE1992A ; OHCHINOLIDE-B Fruit: DUKE1992A ; OHCHINOLOL Plant: DUKE1992A ; PALMITIC-ACID Seed 22,800 ppm; DUKE1992A ; PARAISINE Leaf: DUKE1992A ; PHOSPHORUS Leaf 220 - 2,300 ppm DUKE1992A ; PROLINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; PROTEIN Seed 287,000 ppm; DUKE1992A ; QUERCETIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; QUERCETIN-3-O-L-RHAMNOSIDE Leaf: DUKE1992A ; QUERCITRIN Leaf: DUKE1992A ; RESIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; RUTIN Leaf: DUKE1992A ; SAPONIN Bark: DUKE1992A ; SCOPOLETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A ; SEDANOLACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A ; SENDANIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; SERINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; SOLANNIN Plant: DUKE1992A ; STARCH Fruit: DUKE1992A ; STEARIC-ACID Seed 22,800 ppm; DUKE1992A ; STIGMAST-4-EN-3-ONE Root: DUKE1992A ; T-CADINOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; T-MUUROLOL Wood: DUKE1992A ; TANNIN Bark 180,000 - 260,000 ppm DUKE1992A; THREONINE Seed: DUKE1992A ; TRANS-P-2-MENTHEN-1-OL Wood: DUKE1992A ; TRIACONTANOL Fruit: DUKE1992A ; VANILLIC-ACID Bark: DUKE1992A Fruit: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A ; VANILLIN Fruit: DUKE1992A ; VANNILALDEHYDE Plant: DUKE1992A ; ppm = parts per million tr = trace

ZONA GEOGRAFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

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Origen y distribución: árbol nativo del Himalaya y otras regiones asiáticas. Es mayormente cultivado en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de ambos los hemisferios, tal como en el área mediterránea.

Partes utilizadas: planta entera.

Propiedad: emenagoga, insecticida, vermífuga, antivirales, antimicótica, acaricida.

Nota de alcance (en)

Root: Root-bark is boiled for a vermifuge and febrifuge.

Leaf: Used to treat scabies or itches in Surinam. Decoction ingested to treat diarrhoea in Surinam. In French Guiana, an astringent decoction is used in gargles for tooth problems and to fortify the gums.

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Origin

Cultivated and naturalized throuhout India. Wild in the Sub-Himalayan tract up to 1,800 m.

Action:

Leaf—diuretic, anthelmintic, antilithic.

Leaf and Linn. flower—febrifuge, sedative, emmenagogue.

Leaf, fruit and stem bark—antileprotic.

Leaf, flower, fruit, root bark—deobstruent, resolvent. Seed oil—antirheumatic, insecticidal.

Leaves, bark and fruit—insect repellent.

Gum— used in spleen enlargement.

Heart- wood—an aqueous extract, used in asthma.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida.-- Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay.-- Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937. p. 100.

2) Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases [en línea]. [Consultada: 28 de noviembre, 2008].Disponible en:http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

3) Olmos, S.E. Lavia, G. Di Renzo, M. Mroginski, L. Echenique, V. Genetic analysis of variation in micropropagated plants of Melia azedarach L. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant. 202, vol. 38 , nº6, p.617-622

4) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

5) El uso popular de las plantas medicinales en Uruguay/Grosso, Lilia. - Icei, 2010. -- p. 88 

6) Khare, C.P./ Indian Medicinal Plants. -- Nueva Dheli: Springer, 2007 . - p  406-

Melia azedarach L
Término aceptado: 19-Dic-2007