Ruta graveolens L

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Ruta graveolens is a small arom. shrub and has been used medicinally and magically, since ancient times.  In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was employed to develop reproducible markers for authentication of this species from its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides.  The random decamer oligonucleotide primers (42) were screened for identification of genuine and adulterant samples using the DNA isolated from the dried leaf, seed and stem of both samples.  Out of 42 primers, 10 gave faint band, 12 gave species-specific reproducible unique band and the remaining did not amplify the DNA.  RAPD could thus, serve as a complementary tool for quality control.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
In the present study we evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of ethanolic ext. of Ruta graveolens leaves using various in-vitro models.  Phenolic compds. of plant origin are of great interest due to their antioxidant property and serves as essential part of human diet.  The alc. leaves ext. of Ruta graveolens showed DPPH radical scavenging activity 08.48, 10.45, 11.15, 13.01 and 19.37% at resp. concns. of 10, 50, 100, 250 and 400 mg/mL and the results were compared with that of std. drug Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole (BHA).  Also the ext. showed relatively better hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of 42.10, 47.90, 58.71, 61.61 and 72.67% at resp. concns.  The total phenolic content of leaves ext. was found to be 13mg/mg Catechol equiv. when assayed by Folin-Ciocalteau method.  The ext. significantly inhibited nitric oxide, superoxide anions and showed ferric reducing power.  The ext. exhibited a- amylase inhibition in a concn. dependent manner.  At concns. of 2, 20 and 200 mg/mL ext. showed 70.78, 72.23 and 72.53% inhibition.  The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that R. graveolens has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant as well as antidiabetic agent.

2) Aim of study: Ruta graveolens is found to have potential value in traditional medicine its components are of great interest in medicinal chem.  It contains many active principles that act as antioxidants and possess anticancer, antiviral and antimicrobial properties.  The present study deals with quant. and qual. studies of phytochems. in Ruta graveolens including GC-MS profiling of the methanolic exts. of stem, root and leaves.  The antimicrobial and anticancer activities are also reported.  Results: Qual. and quant. studies revealed that exts. from different parts of Ruta graveolens showed variation of phytochem. components that included alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins.  GC-MS profiling lead to the identification of more than 160 phytochems.  The exts. were also found to have microbe inhibiting activities from different regions (stem, root and leaf) and potential cytotoxic activities with a lethal concn. of 62 mg against Hep2 cell lines.  Conclusion: The present study has opened avenues in the field of purifn. of active components of plants.  Characterization of these compds. may find potential applications in pharmaceutical and drug industry.  Further studies may also aim in the screening of this plant for antiviral activity against HIV and other dreadfiil diseases.

3) The compn. of essential oil obtained by hydrodistn. from genetically transformed roots of common rue (Ruta graveolens) was analyzed.  Using gas chromatog. and complex gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry, it was established that the major component of rue essential oil was a root-specific sesquiterpene geijerene comprising 67% of total amt. of volatile compds.  In essential oil of cultured rue roots, furocoumarins characteristic of intact plant roots were found, viz. osthole, halepensin, and rutacultin.  The content of essential oil in genetically transformed rue roots was 0.23% of root dry wt., which is comparable with that in the roots of intact plants.  The long-term maintenance in the in vitro cultured rue roots of a capability for the synthesis of essential oil major components characteristic of intact plants allows their usage for studying the physiol. activity of these volatile compds. and their putative role in the plant root interaction in biocenoses.

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: chipping, erysipelas, calmative, constipation, pain site, fever, infantile colic, stomach, gastrointestinal problems, worm, menstrual cramps, cycle control, stopping menstruation, down menstruation, uterine problems, eye drops, conjunctivitis, eyes, eyes red, sinusitis.                                                 

Origin: Bolivia, Canada, Chile, China, Ecuador, Madagascar, Mexico, South Africa, United States, Venezuela.  

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Leaf: In Surinam, decoction of leaves is used to treat convulsions in young children.

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Origin: Native to Europe.

Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic, Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antifertility, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antinervioso, contra el dolor de cabeza, vértigo, palpitaciones y dolor de estómago.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Afecciones respiratorias. Poner a hervir durante 35g de la planta fresca en medio litro de agua. Dejar reposar durante 15 minutos y colar. Agregar 50 g de miel de brezo. Tomar toda la tisana durante el día, repartida en varias tomas.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Aceite esencial (0,1-0,6%): compuesto por ésteres (acetatos de 2-monilo y 2-undeiclo, etc), monoterpenos (alfa y beta-pineno, limoneno), cetonas alifáticas (metilnonilcetona en una proporción del 90%), alcoholes (2-undecanol), cumarinas y furanocumarinas (0,15-0,70%) destacando: bergapteno, psoraleno, dafnoretina, isoimperatorina, escopoletina, umbeliferona, pangelina, etc. Alcaloides quinólicos: arborinina, rutamina, graveolina, graveolinina, 6-metoxidictamina, furoquinolina, T-fagarina, cocusaginina, rutacridina, metilacridona, etc. Flavonides: rutina (1-2%), quercetina. Otros: resina, goma, ácido ascórbico, ácido málico, taninos, lignanos (raíz), sustancias amargas, etc.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay, Caminos de Santiago. Herb 60 cm, dooryard garden, San Andrés.

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Parte empleada: rama.
Usos: dolor de estómago y gastritis.
Preparación: para dolor de estómago, se hierven unas ramas en leche o agua, se deja enfriar por unos minutos. Posteriormente batir el preparado con un huevo y tomarlo mientras se presente el dolor. Para gastritis, preparar un té con unas hojas y tomarlo por las mañanas.

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Escalona Cruz, José Luis; et al/ Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales vol. 20, no 4. 2015. p -- 429 - 439

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Uso tradicional:
esta planta se usa principalmente para tratar neuralgias y dolores menstruales y estomacales.

Método de empleo:
se utilizan las hojas, ramas y cogollos de individuos principalmente adultos, los cuales se recogen en cualquier época del año, preferiblemente en invierno. Esta planta se consume como bebida hirviendo las partes de la planta en agua o leche, o como infusión. También se pica y mezcla con huevo tibio y se coloca en emplasto en la zona afectada.

Origen: Colombia

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937. p. 110.

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 850.

3) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 200.

4) KHAN, Salim; MIRZA, Khanda Jabeen; ABDIN, Malik Zainul. DNA fingerprinting for the authentication of Ruta graveolens. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011, vol.10, nº44, p.8709-8715.
 
5) PANDEY, Pinkee, et al. Antioxidant property, total phenolic content and inhibition of a -amylase activity of Ruta graveolens L. leaves extract. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011, vol.4, nº6, p.1735-1737.
 
6) BENAZIR, J. F., et al. Phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies of methanolic extracts from Ruta graveolens.  Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011, vol.4, nº5, p.1407-1409.
 
7) KUZOVKINA, I. N., et al. Composition of essential oil in genetically transformed roots of Ruta graveolens. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2009, vol.56, nº6, p.846-851.

8) COMERFORD, Simon C. Economic Botany. vol. 50 . -- p. 327 - 336 1996

9) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

4) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

5) Plantas medicinales de La Matamba y El Piñonal, municipio de Jamapa, Veracruz/ Escamilla Pérez, Blanca Edith; Moreno Casaola, Patricia. INECOL: Mexico, 2015, 99p.

6) Escalona Cruz, José Luis; et al/ Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales vol. 20, no 4. 2015. p -- 429 - 439

7) A guide to medicinal plants / Hwee Ling, Koh; Tung Kian, Chua; Chay Hoon, Tan. Singapore:  World vScientific Public Co. Pte. Ltd., 2009. p 289 p.

8) Arango Caro, Sandra /Guía de plantas medicinales de uso común en Salento, Colombia. St. Lois : Missouri Botanical Garden Press., 2004. - p. 71

Ruta graveolens L
Término aceptado: 26-Dic-2007