Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Planta entera.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Diurético, sudorífico. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: 14-OXO-8-(2-METHYLBUTANOYL)-9,15-DIHYDROXYACANTHOSPERMOLIDE Plant: WO2;14-OXO-9-LINOLENYL-8-(2-METHYLBUTANOYL)-15-HYDROXYACANTHOSPERMOLIDE Plant: WO2; 14-OXO-9-PALMITYL--8-(2-METHYLBUTANOYL)-15-HYDROXYACANTHOSPERMOLIDE Plant: WO2; 14-OXO-9-STEARYL-8-(2-METHYLBUTANOYL)-15-HYDROXYACANTHOSPERMOLIDE Plant: WO2; 9-ACETOXY-8-(2-METHYLBUTANOYL)-14,15-DIHYDROXYACANTHOSPERMOLIDE Plant: WO2; ACANTHOSPERMOL-B Plant: WO2; ACANTHOSPERMOL-B-GALACTOSIDOPYRANOSIDE Plant: WO2; EO Plant 2,000 ppm; WO2; TRIDECAPENTAYNENE Root: WO2;

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: América. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Background: Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world.  The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.  Methods: The 26 plants were extd. with methanol and hot water to yield 52 exts.  Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7) by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet.  Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-pos. bacteria, two Gram-neg. bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the detn. of MIC against three Gram-pos. bacteria with the broth micro-diln. assay.  Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical.  Moreover, a phytochem. screening of the methanolic exts. was done.  Results: Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was obsd. for exts. from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 mg/mL.  The methanol exts. of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values < 50 mg/mL.  The greatest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by exts. from Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values £ 250 mg/mL.  In addn., the methanolic exts. of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concns.
(more than 80% at 50 mg/mL).  Conclusion: Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity.  The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacol. and phytochem. investigations. 

2) Incubation of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabiesvirus (PRV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 during infection of cell cultures with an ext. prepd. from the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum impaired productive replication of these viruses in a concn.-dependent manner whereas propagation of classical swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and vaccinia virus was not affected.  The 50% inhibitory concn. for cell growth (IC50) was 107±5 ml/mL, and the concn. reducing PRV yield by 1 log10 (90% effective concn., EC90) was 8±3 ml/mL.  The selectivity index calcd. as the IC50/EC90 ration was 13±4.  Delineation of the mechanism of the antiviral activity demonstrated inhibition of alphaherpesvirus attachment to and, to a lesser extent, penetration into the cells.  In contrast, viral gene expression was not inhibited by the ext. when added after entry of virions into the target cells.  Reduced antiviral activity of A.h. against PRV deletion mutants lacking glycoprotein C (gC) or glycoproteins gC, gE, gG and gI altogether indicated that gC alone and/or viral attachment complexes of which gC is a component constitute the target structures for A. hispidum. 

3) Geobotanical and biogeochem. studies near the Zawar Pb-Zn mines (Udaippur, India) indicate that a wild variety of Impatiens balsamina is the most characteristic species on Pb-Zn ore dumps and can be regarded as a local bioindicator for these metals.  A survey of 13 plant species at the Zawar Pb-Zn mines and 2 plant species at the Khetri Cu deposits (Rajasthan, India) identified a no. of accumulator species with high biol. absorption coeffs. for Pb, Zn, and Cu, as well as some excluders. 

4) Samples of the sweet-tasting species Acanthospermum hispidum (Compositae) (aerial parts), Boscia salicifolia (Capparidaceae) (stem bark), Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae) (peduncles), and Inga spectabilis (Leguminosae) (arils) were tested for their natural sweeteners.  The sweetness of these plants was traced to large amts. of sugars and polyols by taste-guided fractionation, which were identified and quantified using gas chromatog./mass spectrometry.  The combined yields of sugars and polyols in the A. hispidum, B. salicifolia, H. dulcis, and I. spectabilis samples investigated were 6.9, 10.1, 18.4, and 12.1% wt./wt., resp.  These yields are much higher than the total saccharide and polyol content (2.4% wt./wt.) of the sweet-dried fruits of Thladiantha grosvenorii (Cucurbitaceae), a species which has previously been reported to contain >1% wt./wt. of the intensely sweet triterpene, mogroside V.  The dried leaves of Symplocos tinctoria (Symplocaceae), which were not appreciably sweet, were found to contain only 2.0% wt./wt. of sugars.  Apparently, unless the saccharide and/or polyol content of a plant part is well over 5% wt./wt., then it is unlikely to exhibit an overtly sweet taste, unless an intense sweetener is present.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, p.25.

2) MOTHANA, Ramzi A, et al. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009, vol.9, nº7, p.11.
     
3) SUMMERFIELD, Artur, et al. Antiviral activity of an extract from leaves of the tropical plant Acanthospermum hispidum. Antiviral Research. 1997, vol.36, nº1, p.55-62.
     
4) AERY, N. C.; TIAGI, Y. D. Bioindicators and accumulators in geobotanical and biogeochemical prospecting of metals. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 1986, vol.37, nº1, p.67-78 .
     
5) HUSSAIN, Raouf A., et al. Potential sweetening agents of plant origin.  Part XX.  Plant-derived sweetening agents:  saccharide and polyol constituents of some sweet-tasting plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1990, vol.28, nº1, p.103-115.

6) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud.  Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005, p. 545.

Acanthospermum hispidum DC.
Término aceptado: 09-Ago-2007