Larrea divaricata Cav.

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary
The genus Larrea (Zygophyllaceae) is widely distributed throughout the American continent. However, L. divaricata is a small shrub that is almost exclusively found in some regions of Argentina. Popularly known by the common name of jarilla, L. divaricata is used for several unspecific medicinal purposes. To date, most of the pharmacological studies in this species have focused on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumour activities of the extracts and of nordhydroguaiaretic acid, one of its main chemical constituents.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES<!-- /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> = GENETIC DIVERSITY AND IMPROVEMENT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:

Nucleotide sequences of Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA were obtained for the five species of Larrea and one species each of Bulnesia (ITS only) and Plectrocarpa (rbcL only). Parsimony analyses were conducted, including sequences from seven genera of Zygophyllaceae reported by other authors - Kallstroemia, Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia, Pintoa, Guaiacum, and Porlieria. The main conclusions of the present study are (1) the Argentine endemic Plectrocarpa tetracantha belongs to the subfamily Larreoideae (New World Clade); (2) all three phylogenies obtained from rbcL, ITS, and combined data sets show a close relationship between the tetraploid L. cuneifolia (sect. Bifolium) and the diploid multifoliolate pair L. nitida-L. ameghinoi (sect. Larrea), which could result from a possible intersectional hybrid origin of the tetraploid; (3) L. divaricata (sect. Bifolium) and L. tridentata (sect. Bifolium) form a highly supported monophyletic group, which agrees with previous cytogenetic and molecular evidence; and (4) the rate of nucleotide substitution of rbcL was estimated based on geological and fossil records. Under the molecular clock hypothesis, nucleotide sequence divergence between L. divaricata and L. tridentata suggests a Late Neogene (8.4 to 4.2 mybp) time of arrival of the diploid ancestors of L. tridentata to North American deserts. © 2001 Academic Press.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA =Used part: Hojas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA =Pharmacological action: antiinflamatoria, emenagoga, sudorífica, antidiarreica, antiinfecciosa urinaria y facilitadora del parto en las mujeres, para calmar dolores de muelas, antitusígeno, en resfríos, fiebres, neumonías, contra el reumatismo, sífilis, gota, enfermedades cutáneas, externamente contra sabañones y la C, desinfectante de heridas o picaduras de serpientes.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA =Chemical composition: The external phenolic resin on the leaves of Larrea tridentata contains eighteen flavone and flavonol aglycones (mostly as methyl ethers), one dihydroflavonol and two lignans (including nordihydroguaiaretic acid). Except for a few isolated 2n populations which exhibited minor differences, a single chemical type was observed for all three ploidy levels (2n, 4n and 6n) in the North American L. tridentata suggesting an autoploid origin for the tetraploid and hexaploid races. The resin chemistry of the North American taxon was most similar to that of the Argentinian diploid L. divaricata, although the resin of the latter taxon did not contain the three 8-hydroxyflavonols; however, 8-hydroxyflavonol aglycones were detected in Peruvian populations of L. divaricata. © 1976.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA =Geografical zone: América. 

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Enfermedad o síntoma
Dolor de estómago

Colesterol alto

Diabetes

Caspa

Pie de atleta

Hipertensión

Dolor de huesos y articulaciones

Gripe

Neumonía

Resfrío y congestión

Parásitos

Parte utilizada
Hoja

Forma de preparación
Infusión

Decocción o incinerado

Infusión

Decocción

Infusión

Infusión

Decocción

Decocción

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Baños (cabeza)

Baños o aplicado de cenizas en el calzado

Vía oral

Baños

Vía oral

Vía oral

Inhalación o bao

Baños (cabeza) para los piojos

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud. Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005,p.278-283

2) SAKAKIBARA, M., et al Flavonoid methyl ethers on the external leaf surface of Larrea tridentata and L. Divaricata. Phytochemistry. 1976, vol.15, nº5, p.727-731.
 
3) LIA, V.V , et al. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): Reticulate evolution and the probable time of creosote bush arrival to North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2001, vol.21, nº2, p.309-320.

4) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

5) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Larrea divaricata Cav.
Término aceptado: 26-Dic-2007