Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antiescorbútico, cura llagas y heridas. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Seven compounds have been isolated for the first time from Galinsoga parviflora namely, β-sitosterol (1), octacosanoic acid (2), ursolic acid (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (5), gallic acid (6) and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), respectively. Their structures have been elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS, FAB, HRFABMS. and 1H NMR spectroscopic data.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: America. 

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Methods for identifying species by using short orthologous DNA sequences, known as "DNA barcodes," have been proposed and initiated to facilitate biodiversity studies, identify juveniles, assoc. sexes, and enhance forensic analyses. The cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence, which has been found to be widely applicable in animal barcoding, is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene evolution in higher plants than in animals. We therefore propose the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer as potentially usable DNA regions for applying barcoding to flowering plants. The internal transcribed spacer is the most commonly sequenced locus used in plant phylogenetic investigations at the species level and shows high levels of interspecific divergence. The trnH-psbA spacer, although short (»450-bp), is the most variable plastid region in angiosperms and is easily amplified across a broad range of land plants. Comparison of the total plastid genomes of tobacco and deadly nightshade enhanced with trials on widely divergent angiosperm taxa, including closely related species in seven plant families and a group of species sampled from a local flora encompassing 50 plant families (for a total of 99 species, 80 genera, and 53 families), suggest that the sequences in this pair of loci have the potential to discriminate among the largest no. of plant species for barcoding purposes. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to det. their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension.  High phenolic and antioxidant activity-contg. medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase.  Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE).  All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential.  Major phenolic compds. in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivs.  Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention assocd. with Type 2 diabetes.

2) Galinsosides A (I) and B (II), new flavanone glucosides, together with two known flavanones, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavanone (3) and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavanone (4) have been isolated from an Et acetate- sol. fraction of Galinsoga parviflora.  Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectral studies.  I showed significant antioxidant and urease inhibitory activity while compd. 2 was moderately active.  On the other hand, II showed inhibitory potential against alpha-glucosidase.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980 .

2) TARIQ, S., et al. Phytochemical studies on Galinsoga parviflora Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan. 2008, vol.30, nº5, p.762-765.
 
3) KRESS, W. John, et al. Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005, vol.102, nº23, p.8369-8374.
 
4) RANILLA, Lena Galvez, et al. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresource Technology. 2010, vol.101, nº12, p.4676-4689.
 
5) FERHEEN, Sadia, et al. Galinsosides A and B, bioactive flavanone glucosides from Galinsoga parviflora. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2009, vol.24, nº5, p.1128-1132.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav.
Término aceptado: 27-May-2008