Cynara cardunculus L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Cardosin A and cardosin B are two aspartic proteases mainly found in the pistils of cardoon Cynara cardunculus L., whose flowers are traditionally used in several Mediterranean countries in the manuf. of ewe's cheese. We have been characterizing cardosins at the biochem., structural and mol. levels. In this study, we show that the cardoon aspartic proteases are encoded by a multigene family. The genes for cardosin A and cardosin B, as well as those for two new cardoon aspartic proteases, designated cardosin C and cardosin D, were characterized, and their expression in C. cardunculus L. was analyzed by RT-PCR. Together with cardosins, a partial clone of the cyprosin B gene was isolated, revealing that cardosin and cyprosin genes coexist in the genome of the same plant. As a first approach to understanding what dictates the flower-specific pattern of cardosin genes, the resp. gene 5' regulatory sequences were fused with the reporter b-glucuronidase and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana. A subsequent deletion anal. of the promoter region of the cardosin A gene allowed the identification of a region of approx. 500 bp essential for gene expression in transgenic flowers. Addnl., the relevance of the leader intron of the cardosin A and B genes for gene expression was evaluated. Our data showed that the leader intron is essential for cardosin B gene expression in A. thaliana. In silico anal. revealed the presence of potential regulatory motifs that lay within the aforementioned regions and therefore might be important in the regulation of cardosin expression. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) biosynthesis pathway in plants is not fully understood, but the BAHD superfamily, a large class of acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferases, may represent an interesting group for the isolation of enzymes playing a key role.  Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) represents a relevant model species for studying CQA biosynthesis, because the plant accumulates high amts. and a diverse spectrum of CQAs in its leaves.  An in silico scan of globe artichoke ESTs was based on a search string targeting the conserved motifs of BAHD proteins and complete BAHD sequences present in a range of species.  EST hits were assembled into 32 unigenes and their phylogeny characterized.  Among which were three putative BAHD acyltransferases showing a high level of similarity to globe artichoke HCT and HQT enzymes.  The full-length cDNAs of these three proteins were isolated; two of these acyltransferases were able to synthesize both chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinate, assessing their involvement in CQA biosynthesis.  Upon exposure to UV-C radiation, which is known to induce CQA biosynthesis, expression of two of the enzyme transcripts was up-regulated while that of the third was unaffected.  By analyzing the globe artichoke unigene consensus sequences, further two genes (i.e.  C4H, 4CL), related not only to flavonoids but also to chlorogenic acid (a mono-CQA) biosynthesis, were also identified and were genetically mapped along with the three acyltransferase genes.  The research has improved the knowledge base surrounding globe artichoke BAHD members.  The mapping of the genes related to the chlorogenic acid biosynthesis pathway may contribute to a greater understanding of the genetic basis of the synthesis of these compds. of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical value.
 
2) The methanol ext. of the flowers of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) exhibited remarkable antitumor activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice, using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter.  From the active fraction of the methanol ext., four triterpene alcs. and their corresponding acetates were isolated and identified.  These compds. were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 mg/ear) in mice and showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% ID of 0.50-0.91 mmol/ear.

3) Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is a perennial spontaneous thistle grown in Mediterranean countries and well adapted to marginal lands, recently considered as a non-food energy crop.  Their seeds contain 24% of oil (dry basis).  In this study, modeling and optimization of the prodn. of fatty acid Me esters (FAME) from cardoon oil for biodiesel uses was performed at lab. scale, via response surface methodol., following a central composite rotatable design.  FAME were obtained by transesterification of crude cardoon oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (sodium methoxide) for 120 min.  The temp. ranged from 26 to 94 °C, the amt. of sodium methoxide varied between 0.12 and 2.5 wt-% and the molar ratio methanol/oil from 0.95 : 1 to 11 : 1.  The estd. yield of FAME (97%) was obtained after 30 min, at 52 °C, for a molar ratio of 6.4 : 1 and 1.4 wt-% of catalyst.  In lab.-scale model validation expts., 94% of FAME yield was obtained after 30 min of reaction.  Transesterification was performed in a 30-L reactor, under previously optimized conditions: A yield of 88% FAME was obtained after 90 min of reaction time, due to mass transfer limitations.  After purifn., the biodiesel showed high quality according to DIN EN 14214 std. specifications. 

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: stomach.                                                 

Origin: Colombia, Ecuador, United States 

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Planta entera. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antifebrífugo, diurético, antirreumáticos y para las enfermedades del hígado. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Hojas: flavonoides, ácido clorogénico, cinarina, sales de potasio, inulina. Semillas: Aceite, muy rico en ácidos grasos insaturados (86%). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

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Distribución: Regiones Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O’Higgins, Maule, Nuble, Biobio. Archipielago Juan Fernandez.

Usos medicinales: La cinarina, principal compuesto activo del cardo penquero, mejora la funcion del higado y la vesicula biliar, estimula la secrecion de jugos digestivos y disminuye el colesterol en la sangre. Depurativa de la sangre.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay.  Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937. p. 36.

2) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripcion: plantas medicinales.  3ª. ed.  Barcelona : Masson, 1999, p. 164.

3) PIMENTEL, Catarina, et al. Characterization and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene family of Cynara cardunculus L.  FEBS Journal. 2007, vol.274, nº10, p.2523-2539.
 
4) MENIN, Barbara, et al. Identification and mapping of genes related to caffeoylquinic acid synthesis in Cynara cardunculus L. Plant Science (Shannon, Ireland). 2010, vol.179, nº4, p.338-347.
 
5) YASUKAWA, Ken; MATSUBARA, Hideki; SANO, Yuri. Inhibitory effect of the flowers of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) on TPA-induced inflammation and tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.  Journal of Natural Medicines. 2010, vol.64, nº3, p.388-391.
 
6) SENGO, Inés, et al. Response surface modeling and optimization of biodiesel production from Cynara cardunculus oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 2010, vol.112, nº3, p.310-320.

7) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

8) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

Cynara cardunculus L.
Término aceptado: 22-Ago-2007