Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Planta entera. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Depurativa, diurética, estomáquica y antidiarréica. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Se han reportado los siguientes compuestos en diferentes partes de esta planta: acanthamólido, acanthoaustrálidos, iso-acanthoaustrálido-I-O-acetato, acanthaustrálido-I-O-acetato, acanthospermal A, acanthospermina, acanthospermólido y varios derivados, axilarina, biciclogermacreno, ácido cafeico, crisospenol D, flavonoides, germacreno A, C, D, 9-hidroxiglabratólido, delta-humuleno, hiperósido, 3,4deshidro-1,2-dihidroximentona, penduletina, fitol, quercetina, rutina, spathulenol, timol, isotimol, tridecapenta-3,5,7,9,11, -yn-l-eno y trifolina (Bohlmann, et al., 1981, 1984; Debenedetti, et al., 1987; Herz & Kalyanaraman, 1975). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay, Brasil, Paraguay. 

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The subtribe Espeletiinae (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) comprises morphol. and ecol. diverse plants endemic to the tropical montane paramos of the Andes of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Though the ecophysiol. and ecol. of this adaptive radiation have been well studied, relationships among taxa in the subtribe and between the subtribe and other taxa in the Heliantheae are poorly known. In this study, sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA are used to test previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic position of the Espeletiinae within the Heliantheae and to det. which taxa are the subtribe's closest relatives. Gene phylogenies based on max. parsimony analyses reveal that the Espeletiinae clade is nested well within the subtribe Melampodiinae and thus should be considered a monophyletic complex of species, not a sep. subtribe. The most parsimonious gene trees suggest that the genus Ichthyothere may be the sister taxon to the Espeletia complex and that the genus Smallanthus and a species of Rumfordia are likely among the complex's other closest living relatives. These data offer preliminary insights into the origins of this adaptive radiation and the broader phylogenetic context in which it occurred. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The investigation of the ethanol ext. of Acanthospermum australe, collected in the province of Misiones, Argentina, yielded eight melampolides (1-8) of the acanthospermal type.  Two of them, 8beta-hydroxy-9alpha-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (3) and 9alpha-hydroxy-8beta-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (7) are new compds.  Two other compds. (4 and 8) have been previously reported, and the NMR data of 4 are cor.  Compds. 1, 2, 5 and 6 have not been previously reported, but are probably artifacts formed during extn.  Compds. 3, 6 and 7 showed slight antibiotic activity against Gram-pos. bacteria.

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: wounds, local pain, wound in the uterus, infection of throat, kidneys.                                                 

Origin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Suriname, USA, Venezuela.       

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Summary
Although Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout South America, its presence is rather stronger in the Plate River basin, more specifically in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Southern Brazil. A. australe has only been a subject of preliminary pharmacological studies that have focussed on its anti-malarial and antifungal activity. Research in the experimental oncology area has also yielded interesting results, suggesting that further clinical investigations could be of interest in the future.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, p.53-54.

2) RAUSCHER, Jason T. Molecular phylogenetics of the Espeletia complex (Asteraceae): Evidence from nrDNA ITS sequences on the closest relatives of an Andean adaptive radiation. Botanical Society of America. 2002, vol.89, nº7, p.1074-1084.
 
3) SANCHEZ, Marianela, et al.  Melampolides from Argentinean Acanthospermum australe. Phytochemistry Letters. 2009, vol.2, nº3, p.93-95.

4) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud.  Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005, p. 536.

5) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

6) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze
Término aceptado: 23-May-2008