Ambrosia cumanesis H.B.K.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antiestomacal. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Se registra la presencia de los siguientes compuestos: en esta planta: altamisina, ambrosina , 2,3[H], 2,3-epoxiambrosina, 6-acetil 2,2,-dimetilchroman-4-ona, coniferaldehido, coronopilina, cumambrina A y B, cumanina, damsia, 1,2-deshidrodamsina, germancreo D, lagosina, lup-12-en-3-ol-acetato, paulitina,isopaulitina, psilostachina, psilostachina ByC, siringaldehido y compuestos azufrados.En genero Ambrosia se ha reportado presencia de aceites esencial, quercetino y alcaloide. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua y Venezuela. 

Nota de alcance (en)

Ethnobotanical and general use
The plant is considered a malodorous weed which is used as an insecticide, a disinfectant, and to repel caterpillars. Brooms manufactured of the plant are used to combat fleas in the house.

Medicinal use
The drugs used are: Plantae, folia, caule, radix. Leaf Crushed leaves are used locally or in a decoction together with Pluchea symphytifolia that is taken 3 times a day to cure stomachache. Against stomach pain and to remove intestinal parasites a cool drink is prepared of the crushed aerial  plant parts, and 2 spoons full of it have to be taken 3 times a day. To cure intestinal colics, 3 fresh buds are pounded, strained and mixed with honey. Fresh ground leaves are also used before and after a birth. A cool drink of ground leaves helps against spasms. To cure gastritis, a cup of the decoction of the leaf in a liter of water is taken 5 times a day; a daily cup of this decoction taken over 5 days helps against Compositae (Asteraceae) IR head ache. To cure any pain, a wettened leaf is fried and put on the painful part. A bath in a decoction of leaves together with bitter orange and lemon, 2 times a day and for 3 consecutive days, is recommended to combat fever. Pain in the shoulder is healed by a decoction of the leaf with salt, used locally as a friction. A bath in a decoction of leaves 3 times a day and for 8 consecutive days is used against allergies. To fight intestinal parasites, a cup of fresh ground leaves is taken in the morning on the empty stomach. To combat muscular pain, rheumatism and swollen tissue, the entire plant is toasted and applied directly on the affected part or is fried in oil and used as a friction. The plant is also used against arthritis, epilepsy, yellow fever, constipation, haemorrhagia, as an emmenagogum and for purification (as a remedy for monthly periods and for blood purification). It is furthermore used against white and yellow vaginal discharge and earache, to cure heart pain, to heal nervous attacks, hypertension, fainting and to induce sleep.

Method of use
The parts of the plant mainly used are the leaves, the buds, the entire plant and less commonly, the root. The plant parts are either used fresh locally, unprepared, or macerated (in water or aquavit), pounded or as a decoct  (with salt, honey, bitter orange and lemon or together with Pluchea symphytifolia) or as an infusion, or even pulverized. Leaves are also used as cataplasms. In each case, there is an exact indication, as to how the plant parts have to be prepared and in which quantities they have to be ta (GUPTA 1995, CORREA & BERNAL 1990, RODRIGUEZ 1983).

Healing properties
The plant is useful against stomachache, gastritis, intestinal pain, against parasites (antihelmintic) and spasms, for flatulence, pain in general, rheumatism, arthritis, headache, nervous attacks, muscular pains, fever, vaginal diseases.

Chemical contents
Among others, the plant contains coumarin, ambrosin and altamisin, essential oils, quercetin and alkaloids. In plant extracts, antibacterial and antiviral properties were found; the plant develops activities against Staphylococcus aureus and has insecticide properties. Toxicity was not observed.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, p.65-67.

2) South American medicinal plants : botany, remedial properties, and general use / I. Roth, H. Lindorf. Berlin ; New York : Springer, c2002. -- p. 492.

Ambrosia cumanesis H.B.K.
Término aceptado: 05-Oct-2009