Taraxacum officinale Weber ex. F.H. Wigg.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Assessing the genetic structure of natural populations differentially impacted by anthropogenic contaminants can be a useful tool for evaluating the population genetic consequences of exposure to pollution. In this study, measures of genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat loci in six dandelion populations (3 urban and 3 rural) showed patterns that may have been influenced by exposure to environmental contaminants. Mean genetic similarity among individuals within a population was significantly and positively correlated with increasing levels of airborne particulate matter (≤10 μm, PM10) and soil concentrations of four metals (Cd, Fe, Ni and Pb). In addition, mean genetic similarity was always significantly higher at the urban sites compared to rural sites. There was a significant negative correlation between the number of genotypes at a site and increasing amounts of PM10, concentrations of five soil metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb), leaf tissue levels of Fe and a significant positive correlation between the extent of clonality at a site and levels of PM10 and soil concentrations of five metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb). Although, this study does not directly establish a causal link between the specific contaminants detected at the study sites and differences in genetic diversity, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that pollution-induced selection has contributed in some fashion to the lower genetic diversity found at the urban sites. © Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) To investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves (TOLs), the effect of a methanol ext. and its fractions recovered from TOLs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7.  Cells were pretreated with various concns. of the methanol ext. and its fractions and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 mg/mL).  The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were detd. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.  Expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed using western blotting.  The methanol ext. and its fractions inhibited LPS-induced prodn. of NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner.  The chloroform fraction significantly suppressed prodn. of NO, PGE2, and two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concn. values of 66.51, 90.96, 114.76, and 171.06 mg/mL, resp.  The Et acetate fraction also inhibited prodn. of the inflammatory mols.  The chloroform and Et acetate fractions reduced LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 and activation of MAP kinases in a dose-dependent manner.  Among the fractions of the methanol ext., the chloroform and Et acetate fractions exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activities.  These results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of TOLs are probably due to down-regulation of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 via inactivation of the MAP kinase signal pathway.

2) In this work, we isolated and characterized novel antifungal proteins from seeds of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.).  We showed that they are represented by five isoforms, each consisting of two disulfide-bonded large and small subunits.  One of them, To-Al was studied in detail, including N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits, and shown to display sequence homol. with the sunflower 2S albumin.  Using different assays we demonstrated that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concns. with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity.  Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions.

3) The research was carried out in order to det. the influence of common dandelion rhizosphere on heavy metal content and enzymic activity of soils in 6 parks situated in the city center of the Upper Silesia and towns of the eastern part of Poland.  The research covered soils of the common dandelion rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere zones.  In the expt. a significant differentiation of heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu) content and enzymes examd. (dehydrogenases, phosphateses, ureases and proteases) chem. activity both, between localizations studied as well as inside them was stated.  Soils originated from the Upper Silesia (Zabrze, Bytom, Miasteczko Slaskie) were characterized by the highest heavy metal content and at the same time the lowest enzymic activity.  Independently from the localization, in the soils of rhizosphere zone heavy metal content was significantly lower and the enzymic activity of all enzymes studied - several times higher than marked in the non-rhizosphere zone.  The obsd. stimulation of enzymic activity of soils coming from rhizosphere zones was connected with the increase of C org. and total N content.  The results obtained indicate the common dandelion rhizosphere zone is a natural filter cleaning the soil environment of the pollution coming from urban areas.

Nota de alcance (en)

An infusion of the leaves is used as a wash to treat anal rash of infants. It is seldom used in the Nuevo León region (Cabrera n.d.; Martínez 1969; Uphof 1968).

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Uses: wound healing, stomach.                                                 

Origin: Algeria, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Caanada, Caribbean, Chile, Guatemala, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Panama, South Africa, United States,             

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Tónico y aperitivo, y se usa en las enfermedades del hígado. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Raíz: inulina (25-38%), derivados triterpénicos pentacíclicos provenientes del látex (isolactucerol, taraxerol, taraxasterol, acetatos y sus 16-HO-derivados), principio amargo (lactona sesquiterpénica denominada taraxicina), una resina ácida (taraxerina), goma, mucílagos (1%), ácidos fenilcarboxílicos (ácido cafeico, ácido clorogénico y p-hidroxifenilacético), carotenoides y sales minerales (manganeso y potasio especialmente). Hojas: flavonoides (apigenol, luteolo), vitaminas B y C, provitamina A (14.000 UI/100g), germanólidos, carotenoides (luteína, violaxantina, flaxantina, luteína, luteína-epóxido, criptoxantina-epóxido), taraxacina, lípidos (acilglicéridos y ácidos grasos). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

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Distribución: Regiones Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O’Higgins, Maule, Biobio, Araucania, Los Lagos, Aysen, Magallanes. Isla de Pascua.

Usos medicinales: Se usa como aperitivo estomacal, diuretico, purgante, febrifugo y antiescorbutico. El cocimiento de la planta se usa como tonico y depurativo de la sangre y para tratar problemas hepaticos.

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Droga: hojas y raíces.

Propiedades:
Excelente depurativo o drenador hepato-renal. El principio amargo la convierte en estimulante del apetito y presenta actividad colerética y diurética.
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Partes usadas:
raíz- hojas.

Usos tradicionales:
en trastornos de las vías biliares y padecimientos hepáticos, digestiones difíciles de tipo crónico (dispepsia), pérdida del apetito; diurético; reumatismo.
La infusión se prepara con 1 cucharada de hojas para 1 litro de agua recién hervida: beber 1 taza 3 veces al día. Para las raíces hacer una decocción, hirviendo 1 cucharada por 10 minutos.

Efectos: diurético, estimulante del apetito, digestivo.

Precauciones: no administrar en caso de obstrucción de la vía biliar (ictericia).
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Uso tradicional:
se usa principalmente para calmar los dolores del abdomen relacionados con el hígado, los riñones y problemas estomacales (acidez, gastritis). Según INVIMA (2000, 2003) las hojas y raíz de esta especie se usan como diurético.
Toxicidad:
advertencia de no consumir durante el embarazo y lactancia, y por menores de 17 años y pacientes con desequilibrios hidroelectrolíticos.

Método de empleo:
se utilizan las hojas que se recogen de individuos en cualquier edad durante todo el año. Se prepara una bebida hirviendo las hojas en agua o como infusión.

Origen: Colombia
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Enfermedad o síntoma
Dolor de estómago

Parte utilizada
Hoja y capítulo

Forma de preparación
Infusión

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937. p

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p

3) KEANE, B.; COLLIER, M.H.; ROGSTAD, S.H.. Pollution and genetic structure of North American populations of the common dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. v. 105 (1-3): 341-357. 2005.

4) KOH, Yoon-Jeoung, et al. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Taraxacum officinale Leaves on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Cells. Journal of Medicinal Food . ,2010 vol.13, nº4, p.870-878.
 
5) ODINTSOVA, T. I., et al. Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg.  Protein & Peptide Letters . 2010, vol.17, nº4, p.522-529     .
 
6) BIELINSKA, E. J.; KOLODZIEJ, B. The effect of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale web.) rhizosphere on heavy metal content and enzymatic activity of soil. Acta Horticulturae . 2009, Vol.826(Proceedings of the First International Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference on Culinary Herbs, 2007),  p.345-350.

7) Nicholson Michael S. ; Arzhennithe, Charles . Economic Botany. vol. 47 . --p. 184-192 1993

8) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

9) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

10) Linares Gimeno, Nuria/ Plantas Medicinales: cuaderno de trabajo. UPA: Madrid, 2013. p . - 67

11) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

12) Arango Caro, Sandra /Guía de plantas medicinales de uso común en Salento, Colombia. St. Lois : Missouri Botanical Garden Press., 2004. - p. 71

13) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Taraxacum officinale Weber ex. F.H. Wigg.
Término aceptado: 28-May-2008