Ageratum conyzoides L.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Planta entera.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: La planta ha mostrado eficiencia clínica en controlar artritis, disminuyendo la inflamación y dolor, después de la primera semana de tratamiento. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Se ha registrado la presencia de aceite esencial, principios amargos, taninos y mucílago (Coimbra 1942). Las hojas contienen aceite esencial (0.0554%). El exocarpio del fruto contiene fitomelano (García-Barriga, 1975). Se conoce la presencia de cumarinas llamadas precocenos, y sustancias insecticidas. En la planta entera se encuentran ageconiflavona A, B, C, (flavonoides), esquinatina y licopsamina (alcaloidespirrolizidínicos), eupalestina(flavonoide), friedelina, n-hentriacontano, n-hepta-cosano, linderoflavona, linderoflavonaB, nobiletina, y 5`-metoxinobiletina, n-nonacasona, quercetina, beta-sitosterol, estigmasterol y n-ticarcontano. El aceite esencial de hojas y partes aéreas contiene varios terpenos. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil . 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) This work aimed at identifying plant compds. with insecticidal activity against Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).  The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetaefolia L.), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), 'baleeira' herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.).  Firstly, the insecticidal activities of hexane and ethanol plant exts. were evaluated against adults of R. dominica.  Among them, only the hexane ext. of A. conyzoides showed insecticidal activity.  The hexane ext. of this plant species was therefore fractionated by silica gel column chromatog. to isolate and purify its bioactive chem. constituents.  Three compds. were identified using IR spectra, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC and NOE after gel chromatog.: 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone and coumarin.  The complete assignment of 13C NMR to 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone was successfully made for the first time.  5,6,7,8,3'-Pentamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone did not show any insecticidal activity against the four insect species tested.  5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-Heptamethoxyflavone showed low activity against D. hyalinata and R. dominica and was not toxic to M. domestica or P. americana.  In contrast, coumarin showed insecticidal activity against all four insect pest species tested, with the following order of susceptibility: R. dominica < P. americana < D. hyalinata < M. domestica after 24 h exposure. 

2) Present paper summarizes some biochem. aspects of Ageratum conzyoides of family Asteraceae.  Ext. of Fresh leaves of Ageratum is used as hemostatic, antihemorrhagic, antibacterial and antianxiety.  It is used to stop bleeding.  Present paper describes some biochem. aspects related to its medicinal value.  Thus anal. of total nitrogen, total heavy metal, total calcium, amino acids and quinones have been done to correlate these findings with its medicinal value. 

3) Two weed samples, G52 from Ageratum conyzoides and G87 from Malvastrum coromandelianum, showing leaf curling and vein thickening symptoms were collected in Nanning, Guangxi Province, China.  The complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A-like mols. of G52 and G87 were detd. to be 2735 and 2745 nucleotides, resp.  Both DNA-A mols. have a genomic organization typical of begomoviruses and share 73.4% sequence identity with each other.  Sequence comparisons showed that the DNA-A of G52 and G87 were most closely related to those of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV; 85% sequence identity) and Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (75.7% sequence identity), resp.  Further sequence comparisons showed that G52 has arisen by recombination among viruses related to AYVV, Papaya leaf curl China virus, and an unidentified Begomovirus species.  The mol. data suggest that G52 and G87 are 2 distinct begomoviruses, for which the names Ageratum leaf curl virus for G52 and Malvastrum leaf curl virus for G87 are proposed.  The satellite DNA.beta. mol. was only found to be assocd. with G87.  G87 DNA.beta. consists of 1354 nucleotides, and shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (68.9%) with that assocd. with Sida yellow vein China virus.  A defective DNA.beta. mol. was also found to be assocd. with G87. 

4) This investigation aimed at the anal. of growth, content and compn. of the essential oil of nine accessions of mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides), family Asteraceae.  The statistical design was entirely random in a subdivided plot scheme.  The plots were constituted by nine accessions of Ageratum conyzoides and the subplots were sampled in four periods of time.  The accessions were obtained in following municipalities in the State of Tocantins, Brazil: Formoso do Araguaia (FOR), Gurupi (GUR), Alianca do Tocantins (ALI), Ananas (ANA), Natividade (NAT), Arraias (ARR), Novo Alegre (NOV), Taguatinga do Tocantins (TAG), and Combinado (COM).  The identification of the oil components was carried out by GC/MS.  The accession of COM has presented the greatest rate of dry biomass accumulation (2.17 g day-1), and the greatest rate of leaf area growth (301.73 cm2 day-1).  Fourteen chem. compds. were identified.  The precocene I was the main constituent of the essential oil.  The essential oil content obtained was 0.43%. 

5) The aim of study was to isolate, characterize and elucidate of the antifungal compds. from acetone fraction of Ageratum leaves and to det. the antifungal activity of the isolated compds.  A coumarin compd. has been isolated from acetone fraction of Ageratum leaves (Ageratum conyzoides L.) and chem. structure has been elucidated based on UV, IR, NMR and mass spectra.  This compd. showed an antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus niger.  A. niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.  It causes black mold on certain fruits and vegetables such as grape, onion and peanuts and is a common contaminant of food.  The coumarin was tested for its antifungal activity against A. niger by disk diffusion method.  The MIC values of coumarin was 62.5 ug mL-1.

6) Ageratum conyzoides, an original plant from Central America and Carribian, has been used in various parts of Africa, Asia and South America for curing various diseases.  Using carrageenan-induced edema rat method, we have investigated anti-inflammatory effect of n-hexane and acetone fractions as well as sub-fractions of acetone fraction of Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves.  The results showed that anti-inflammatory of acetone fraction (relative polar fraction) stronger than that of n-hexane fraction (non-polar fraction).  Furthermore, we suggested that semi-polar compds. contained in F-A3 subfraction of acetone fraction showed the strongest anti-inflammatory effect.  Even as it was stronger than that of std. medicine, sodium diclofenac at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw. 

 

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: local pain, indigestion, colic, menstrual cramps, flu, rheumatism                                                 

Origin: Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Bolivia, China, Caribbean, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Madagascar, Mexico, South Africa, Suriname, United States, Venezuela.       

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Whole plant: Infusion for treating sore throats, colic, atony of the digestive tract, and as a tonic.

Root: Infusion used for reducing a high temperature.

Leaf: Mucilaginous leaves are mashed and the juice used to calm a sore throat and for colds; concentrated decoction for chiggers; infusion is diuretic and antidiarrhoeic; emollient. Leaves are put in water and the liquid is drunk for body itches, the so-called "faja skin" or "fafa skieng", in Suriname. Infusion for chest conditions.

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995, p.62-64.

2) MOREIRA, Marcio D, et al. Compounds from Ageratum conyzoides: isolation, structural elucidation and insecticidal activity. Pest Management Science. 2007, vol.63, nº6, p.615-621.
     
3) RESHU. Ageratum conyzoides a source of medicine: An assessment regarding blood coagulation. Advances in Plant Sciences. 2005, vol.18, nº2, p.625-627.
     
4) HUANG, J. F.; ZHOU, X. P. Molecular characterization of two distinct begomoviruses from Ageratum conyzoides and Malvastrum coromandelianum in China. Journal of Phytopathology. 2006, vol.154, nº11, p.648-653.
     
5) CASTRO, H. G., et al. Growth, content and composition of the essential oil of accessions of mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides) collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais. 2008, vol.10, nº2, p.36-43.
     
6) WIDODO, Gunawan Pamudji; SUKANDAR, Elin Yulinah; SUKRASNO; Adnyana, I. Ketut. A coumarin from Ageratum leaves (Ageratum conyzoides L.). International Journal of Pharmacology. 2008, vol.4, nº1, p.56-59.
     
7) ADNYANA, I. K.; YULINAH, Elin; SUKRASNO; Gunawan, P. Anti-inflammatory effects of Argeratum conyzoides L. fractions on carrageenan-induced edema in rats.  Asahi Garasu Zaidan Josei Kenkyu Seika Hokoku. 2007, vol. 77,nª1, p.77.

8) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

9) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017.

Ageratum conyzoides L.
Término aceptado: 23-Ago-2007