Centella asiática (L.)

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Planta entera.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Se emplea el extracto acuoso o alcohólico para heridas y quemaduras, localmente. En la India se estudia su posible utilización en el tratamiento de la lepra. Los extractos alcohólicos y acuosos tienen actividad antiespasmódica. 

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Sus extractos forman parte de preparaciones cosméticas. En nuestro medio recientemente se ha comenzado a usar la infusión(al 1%) internamente para mejorar la circulación sanguínea y combatir la celulitis.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: El extracto alcohólico está compuesto por ácidos grasos, alcaloides, aminoácidos, flavonoides y terpenoides. En las partes subterráneas se encuentran compuestos poliacetilénicos. Entre los terpenoides se destacan los asiaticósidos, responsables de la acción cicatrizante, y el madecasicósido, responsable de la acción antiinflamatoria. Los terpenoides son también responsables de la actividad antiespasmódica.
Los primeros estudios farmacológicos publicados sobre la centella asiática en la década de los años 50, que demostraron la capacidad de los asiaticósidos de disolver la capa lipídica de la membrana del bacilo Mycobacterium, resultaron promisorios para el tratamiento de la lepra y la tuberculosis cutánea. Los asiaticósidos poseen.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Especie cosmopolita. 

Nota de alcance (en)

Origin: Native to India, found in tropical America, Africa, West Pakistan, China, Japan and the Pacific.

Pharmacological Activities
: Antibacterial,  Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antineoplastic, Antioxidant, Antithrombotic,

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Range. Throughout tropical and some subtropical parts of world. Widely distrib­uted in Myanmar, especially in the cooler regions, and found all year near the water’s edge. Although it grows wild, it is also widely cultivated as it is much used.

Uses
Whole plant: Used to treat diabetes, and as a laxative and diuretic.

Leaf: Has a sweet, bitter, sharp, hot taste. Used to control phlegm, treat skin diseases, itching, rashes, sores, and leprosy. The juice squeezed from the leaves- is drunk together with sugar and honey daily to give strength and vitality; mixed with an equal amount of kerosene and massaged into cysts that form on joints; 1 teaspoon given to children to treat colds, fevers, and it will also loosen the bowels; applying or taking it can cure skin diseases. For injuries, applying the juice will reduce the inflammation. The leaves can be made into a drink taken to treat dysentery and urine retention, painful urination, and blood in the urine. Eaten with pepper and honey, they promote health. The leaf is also used in compounds for tonics, poison neutralizers, to treat sores, and as a medi­cine for sore eyes. Leaves are dried and used as an herbal tea to alleviate hyper- tension, and to treat severe sore eyes and hypersensitivity to strong light. The green leaves, are crushed, wrapped in a thin cloth and used as an eye mask, or the juice is squeezed and applied as eye drops. Additionally, leaves are dried in the shade, made into a powder, mixed together with an equal amount of honey, and licked at bedtime for a good night’s sleep. To treat coughs and tuberculosis in children, leaf powder is mixed with water, warmed, and applied to the chest.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALONSO PAZ, Eduardo ; BASSAGODA, María Julia ; FERREIRA, Fernando. Yuyos : uso racional de las plantas medicinales. 2da. ed. Montevideo : Fin de siglo, 2007, p. 54.

2) A guide to medicinal plants / Hwee Ling, Koh; Tung Kian, Chua; Chay Hoon, Tan. Singapore:  World vScientific Public Co. Pte. Ltd., 2009. p 289 p.

3) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

Centella asiática (L.)
Término aceptado: 26-Ago-2010