Nerium oleander L.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Cardiotónico.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Contiene heterosidos cardiotónicos de tipo cardenólido (1,5 %), principalmente oleandrina. se trata del L-oleandrósido de la oleandrigenina, cuya estructura guarda una gran analogía con los heterósidos digitálicos. debe tenerse en cuenta que el contenido de heterósidos cardenolidos pude variar según razas y épocas del año.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Cuenca del Mediterraneo, Argentina y España.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES
= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub widely grown as an ornamental for its abundant and long-lasting flowering as well as its moderate hardiness.  Genetic relatedness among 71 accessions, including com. varieties, different sources of the same varieties, and selections from the wild were investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).  Genetic similarities among accessions were calcd. according to Jaccard's Similarity Index and used to construct a dendrogram based on the unweighted pair group method, using arithmetic avs.  Our results show that up to about 9 % mol. genetic differentiation was detected among morphol. indistinguishable provenances of the same variety.  This can be partly attributed to scoring error but mainly to somatic variation occurring during vegetative propagation.  On the other hand lower genetic distance values were sometimes found among varieties, which differ in morphol. characters and are thus commercialized with different names.  The possibility of considering the amt. of genetic variation within a variety as the threshold value for discrimination of initial varieties and essential deriv. varieties is discussed.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES
= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Aim of the study: For identification of the active constituents we investigated the anticancer activity of cardenolides from Streptocaulon tomentosum Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae) and from Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) which are both used against cancer in the traditional medicine in their region of origin.  Material, methods and results: The antiproliferative activity of cardenolides isolated from roots of Streptocaulon tomentosum (IC50 < 1-15.3 mM after 2 days in MCF7) and of cardenolide contg. fractions from the cold aq. ext. of Nerium oleander leaves ("Breastin", mean IC50 0.85 mg/mL in a panel of 36 human tumor cell lines), their influence on the cellular viability and on the cell cycle (block at the G2/M-phase or at the S-phase in tumor cells, resp.) were detd. using different cell lines.  The murine cell line L929 and normal non-tumor cells were not affected.  Bioactivity guided fractionation of Breastin resulted in the isolation of the monoglycosidic cardenolides oleandrine, oleandrigeninsarmentoside, neritaloside, odoroside H, and odoroside A (IC50-values between 0.010 and 0.071 mg/mL).  Conclusions: The obsd. anticancer activities of exts. and isolated cardenolides are in agreement with the ethnomedicinal use of Streptocaulon tomentosum and Nerium oleander.  The most active anticancer compds. from both species are monoglycosidic cardenolides possessing the 3b,14b-dihydroxy-5b-card-20(22)-enolide structure with or without an acetoxy group at C-16.  The results indicate that the cytotoxic effects are induced by the inhibition of the plasma membrane bound Na+/K+-ATPase.
 
2) Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine.  It is a vegetatively propagated ornamental plant, valued for its evergreen foliage and showy terminal flower clusters that are available in different colors.  Oleander is cultivated recently as a flowering pot plant and therefore abundant propagation of plant material for com. use is of great importance.  This species also produces secondary metabolites, some of which are pharmacol. interests.  The important pharmacol. activities are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer, antinociceptive, and CNS depressant activity.  This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the phytochem. and pharmacol. activity of this plant.

3) Oleander was tested as biomonitoring plant for surfactant polluted marine aerosol.  Potted plants in the greenhouse were sprayed once a week for 5 wk with seawater contg. sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (SDS) at the following concns.: 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 250, 500 mg/L.  A significant correlation was found between SDS concn. in the spray and surfactant deposit on the leaves at the end of the 5 wk.  At that time and two months later, we assessed: leaf visible injury, foliar chloride content, damage to stomatal crypts, water potential, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance.  Relative to controls (not sprayed and sprayed either with deionized water or with seawater without surfactants), all the parameters were affected (P<0.05) by the presence of surfactant.  Furthermore they were correlated (P<0.05) with the concn. of surfactant.  Visible injury occurred after treatments contg. concns. of surfactant exceeding 30 mg/L.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída de Chemical Abstracts= Extracted patent of the Database Chemical Abstracts

Use of nerium oleander for diseases manifested with type ii diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol and triglyceride.      Bas, Ahmet Levent; Kaya, Sule; Yazihan, Nuray; Uney, Kamil.  (Turk.).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2010),     CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2010082906  A1  20100722  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, MT, NL, NO, PT, SE, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2009-TR13  20090203.  Priority: TR  2009-312  20090115.  AN 2010:908136    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

The invention relates to a Nerium extract, the method of obtaining, and using it to be used regulation of lipid metabolism in diseases manifested with Type II diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and cardiovascular diseases.

Nota de alcance (en)

Leaf: Decoction employed against parasitic skin worms, in both humans and animals.

-----------

Origin: Native to southern Europe,[2] and widely cultivated and naturalised in
Asia, Europe and North America.

Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Anticancer/ Antineoplastic, Antifungal, Depressant, Antimitotic, Insecticidal, Larvicidal, Muscle stimulatory and inhibits Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation.
------------

Range. From Mediterranean to the Arabian Peninsula, Ethiopia, Niger, Afghani­stan, Iran and Iraq to India and central China. Found all over Myanmar; naturalized, also cultivated as an ornamental plant.

Uses.

IMPORTANT TOXICITY WARNING:
This plant is poisonous if ingested; it can be applied externally only.

Leaf: Powder from pulverized leaves used for ringworm, itchy skin, and other ex­ternal inflammations; alternatively, the boiled water extract of leaves is used to alleviate inflammation. Liquid from crushed leaves is applied to snakebites to neutralize the venom, as well as to bites or stings from other venomous animals.

Root: The root pow­der is applied to the skin to alleviate headache and neutralize poisons from scorpion and snakebites. Mixed with water, the root powder is applied as an ointment for skin cancer, ringworm and other fungal conditions, earache, infected lesions, and leprosy.
---------------

Origin

Native to Mediterranean region; grown in Indian gardens.

Action:

See N. indicum.

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripcion. 4ta. ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p. 92.

2) PORTIS, E., et al. Genetic relationships between oleander (Nerium oleander L.) accessions by means of AFLP profiling.  Acta Horticulturae. 2004, vol.651(Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Classical Versus Molecular Breeding of Ornamentals, Part II, 2003), p.173-180.
 
3) RASHAN, Luay J., et al. Characterization of the anticancer properties of monoglycosidic cardenolides isolated from Nerium oleander and Streptocaulon tomentosum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011, vol.134, nº3, p.781-788.
 
4)  ZIBBU, Garima; BATRA, Amla. A review on chemistry and pharmacological activity of Nerium oleander L.  Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2010, vol.2, nº6, p.351-358.
 
5) GONTHIER, P., et al. Testing Nerium oleander as a biomonitor for surfactant polluted marine aerosol.  International Journal of Environmental Research. 2010, vol.4, nº1, p.1-10.

6) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 163.

7) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017.

8) A guide to medicinal plants / Hwee Ling, Koh; Tung Kian, Chua; Chay Hoon, Tan. Singapore:  World vScientific Public Co. Pte. Ltd., 2009. p 289 p.

9) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

10) Khare, C.P./ Indian Medicinal Plants. -- Nueva Dheli: Springer, 2007 . - p  439.

Nerium oleander L.
Término aceptado: 09-Sep-2010