Medicago sativa L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:
 

It has been documented that plant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; EC 1.14.99.3) is both development- and stress-regulated, thus it plays a vital role in light signalling and stress responses.  In this study, an alfalfa (Medica sativa L.) HO-1 gene MsHO1 was isolated and sequenced.  It contains four exons and three introns within genomic DNA sequence and encodes a polypeptide with 283 amino acids.  MsHO1 had a conserved HO signature sequence and showed high similarity to other HOs in plants, esp. HO-1 isoform.  The MsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast.  Further biochem. activity anal. of mature MsHO1, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, showed that the Vmax was 48.78 nmol biliverdin-IXa (BV) h-1 nmol-1 protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 2.33 mM, and the optimum Tm and pH were 37 °C and 7.2, resp.  Results of semi-quant. RT-PCR and western blot showed that the expressions of MsHO1 were higher in alfalfa stems and leaves than those in germinating seeds and roots.  Importantly, MsHO1 gene expression and protein level were induced significantly by some pro-oxidant compds., including hemin and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP).  In conclusion, MsHO1 may play an important role in oxidative responses.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radicals scavenging potential of methanol ext. of Medicago sativa using different antioxidant tests including 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities.  The methanol ext. of M. sativa showed significant (p < 0.01) DPPH free radical scavenging (71.05%), superoxide anion radical scavenging (72.59%), hydrogen peroxide scavenging (64.38%) and metal ion chelating (68.98%) activities.  These various antioxidant abilities were compared to std. antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) a -tocopherol.  The results indicated that M. sativa possess antioxidant property.  The results obsd. were comparable to antioxidant properties of BHA, BHT and a-tocopherol.

2) The biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chem. synthesis routes.  Colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aq. AgNO3 with Medicago sativa seed exudates under non-photomediated conditions.  Upon contact, rapid redn. of Ag+ ions was obsd. in <1 min with Ag nanoparticle formation reaching 90% completion in <50 min.  Effect of Ag concn., quantity of exudate and pH on the particle size and shape were investigated.  At [Ag+] = 0.01 M and 30°, largely spherical nanoparticles with diams. in the range of 5-51 nm were generated, while flower-like particle clusters (mean size = 104 nm) were obsd. on treatment at higher Ag concns.  Pre-diln. of the exudate induced the formation of single-cryst. Ag nanoplates, forming hexagonal particles and nanotriangles with edge lengths of 86-108 nm, while pH adjustment to 11 resulted in monodisperse Ag nanoparticles with an av. size of 12 nm.  Repeated centrifugation and redispersion enhanced the percentage of nanoplates from 10% to 75% in soln.  The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy and the Ag products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, SEM, X-ray powder diffraction, and at. force microscopy.  XPS was used to investigate the elements and chem. environment in the top layers of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles, while the metabolites in the exudate were analyzed using gas chromatog.-mass spectroscopy.  To our knowledge, this is the first account of M. sativa seed exudate assisted synthesis and stabilization of biogenic Ag nanoparticles; the nanoplates are notably smaller and better faceted compared with those synthesized by vascular plant exts. previously reported.  Stabilized films of exudate synthesized Ag nanoparticles were effective anti-bacterial agents.

3) The effects of two soil textures (heavy and light) and five cultivars (Alpha, Barlydia, Verdor, Pioneer-5683, Elci) on the yield and chem. compns. of alfalfa were evaluated under Mediterranean climatic conditions in Izmir, Turkey in 2005 and 2006.  The exptl. design was a randomized complete blocks design with four replications.  The effects of soil texture and cultivar interactions on fresh biomass yields and dry matter and crude cellulose content were significant.  Verdor and P-5683 cultivar. had better performances than other cultivars with regard to fresh biomass yield, contents of dry matter, crude protein and crude ash.  The alfalfa yields on light soil texture were significantly higher than heavy textured soil.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts
 

Bioactive botanical cosmetic compositions and processes for their production.      Koganov, Michael; Dueva-Koganov, Olga V.  (Integrated Botanical Technologies, LLC., USA).    U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ.  (2011),     30pp., Cont.-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 116,924.  CODEN: USXXCO  US  20110212190  A1  20110901  Patent  written in English.    Application: US  2011-32187  20110222.  Priority: US  2002-351886P  20020125; US  2003-351910  20030124; US  2008-116924  20080507.  CAN 155:391303    AN 2011:1104579    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

The present invention is directed to bioactive botanical cosmetic compns. derived from membrane and cell serum fractions of plant cell juice.  The present invention also relates to the methods for prepg. these bioactive botanical cosmetic compns. and the uses of these compns. in various cosmetic formulations and as topical skin cosmetic applications.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part : Las sumidades aereas. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Una gran fuente de vitaminas y minerales. Se emplea para combatir la anemia y como suplemento alimenticio y ayuda en casos de artritis y artrosis. 

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: 250-1500 mg de droga o la dosis equivalente de sus preparados. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Sales minerales (10 %) : calcio (1.750 mg/100 g), hierro (35mg/100g ), potasio (2.000mg/100g) , fosforo (250mg/100g), manganeso (5mg/100g), sodio (150mg/100g ) , silice, cinc, etc. Vitamina C (400mg por 100g de hojas secas), carotenos (6-7mg por cada 100g de hoja seca), vitamina B1 (4,2mg/100g), B2 (17,4/100g),B3 (58,8mg/100g), B6 (7,8mg/100g),  B12 (trazas), colina (1,85mg/100g), acido folico  (3mg/100g), acido pantotenico (33mg/100g), D (1.040 U.I) , E y K.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Chile y Estados Unidos. 

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Origen y ecología:
Procede de Oriente Medio desde donde se ha extendido a todo el mundo. Introducida. Cultivada y naturalizada en algunas islas. No amenazada.

Propiedades e indicaciones terapéuticas:
- Derivadas de la experiencia de uso tradicional:
Según parece la utilización medicinal de la alfalfa fue bastante tardía y comenzó probablemene en Estados Unidos donde se considera adecuado para el tratamiento de la artitis, de la diabetes, la úlcera del estómago y el colesterol alto. En nuestro medio se conocen sus beneficios para el tratamiento de la anemia por falta de vitaminas o minerales y en las convalecencias.
- Según el contenido en principios activos o ensayos farmacológicos:
El contenido en nutrientes vitamínicos, minerales, aminoácidos, etc... hacen de la alfalfa un excelente alimento en caso de enfermedades carenciales como anemias, convalecencias, etc.
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In Arabia this plant was called al-fac-facah, meaning “the father of all food and leading to the current English common name alfalfa. This plant, which looks similar to clover, was used by healers in ancient China and India and by American settlers to treat ulcers and other digestive problems. While traditional uses have not been proven to be effective, recent research indicates that alfalfa leaves may help lower cholesterol and absorb carcinogens in the intestines. The seeds contain two chemicals that may promote menstruation, and alfalfa. The plant’s coumarins and isoflavones have some estrogenic effect.
Toxicidad:
seeds should not be consumed during pregnancy

Part used::
Leaves

Origin:
Asia, Europe, North Africa
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Enfermedad o síntoma
Anemia

Parte utilizada
Tallo y hoja

Forma de preparación
Infusión

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripción. 4ª  ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p.p.109-110.

2) FU, Guang-Qing, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, MsHO1, which is pro-oxidants-regulated.  Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (Issy-les-Moulineaux, France). 2011, vol.49, nº7, p.792-799.
 
3) BORA, Kundan Singh; SHARMA, Anupam.  In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Medicago sativa linn. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010, vol.3, nº6, p.1206-1210.
 
4) LUKMAN, Audra I., et al. Facile synthesis, stabilization, and anti-bacterial performance of discrete Ag nanoparticles using Medicago sativa seed exudates. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2011, vol.353, nº2, p.433-444.
 
5) GEREN, Hakan, et al. Effects of different soil textures on the yield and chemical composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars under mediterranean climate conditions. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2009, vol.21, nº7, p.5517-5522.

6) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 234.

7) Cruz Suárez, Jorge S. / Más de 100 plantas medicinaes : Medicina popular Canaria. La obra Social de Gran Canarias: Las Palmas de Gran Canarias, 2007. - 258 p.

8) Hull,Kathleen;  Hull, Meredith Photog./Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

9) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Medicago sativa L.
Término aceptado: 15-Oct-2010