Ceratonia siliqua L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

To describe the genetic structure and variability of carob tree in Morocco, ten populations of this species comprising all major geog. regions (High Atlas, Middle Atlas, Anti Atlas and Rif) were studied using five isoenzymes.  Data provide evidence of a high level of polymorphism.  The mean no. of alleles per locus (Ap = 1.66), the percentage of polymorphic loci (P = 95.5%) and the mean expected heterozygote (He = 0.368) showed an important variability in all populations.  Genetic diversity was essentially explained by the within populations component.  The between populations differentiation accounted for 24.9% of the whole diversity (FST = 0.249).  The relationships among the ten populations were inferred from the Nei's genetic distances.  Three distinct clusters were formed.  It appeared that some populations clustered into regions representing the geog. origin.  However, other populations clustered independently from their geog. origin.  A practical consequence of the high intrapopulation variability for genetic resources management could be that a small no. of populations would be sufficient to preserve most of genetic diversity.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
This work aimed to evaluate the phytochem. content and to det. the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol exts. of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour.  The exts. were rich in phenolic compds., had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells.  The chem. content and the biol. activities of the exts. were significantly affected by gender and cultivar.  Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compds., and the highest antioxidant activity.  Exts. from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity.  The most abundant compd. was theophylline.  The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.  Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.

2) A previous study from our lab. has shown the facilitatory effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae) on the dopaminergic function.  This study investigates the involvement of monoamines in the antidepressant activity of the total polyphenol content of Ceratonia siliqua ext. (CS) in mice using a tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST).  The immobility time in the TST and FST were significantly reduced by CS (25 and 50 mg kg-1, i.p.).  The ext. considerably attenuated the duration of immobility induced by prazosin (62.5 mg kg-1, i.p., an a-adrenoceptor antagonist) and eticlopride (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p., a classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist) in both TST and FST, whereas the ext. could not modify the immobility in mice treated with p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg kg-1, i.p., ´3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) and baclofen (10 mg kg-1, i.p., GABAB agonist).  This suggests that the antidepressant effect of CS is mediated by dopamine and noradrenaline.

3) Ceratonia siliqua L. is an evergreen tree, widely spread in the Mediterranean basin.  The species is mainly used for animal feeding and pharmaceutical and food industries Twelve Tunisian carob populations from different sites were assessed for their variation based on nutritive value of pulp and crude locust bean gum (LBG) using moisture, ash, pH, protein, acid insol. matter, fiber, total phenols, sugars contents and viscosity of crude and purified locust bean gum.  The crude LBG from different regions had 8.03% moisture, 0.27 % ash, 1.72% protein, 1.05% acid-insol. matter, 6.02 pH, 3.5 Neutral Detergent Fiber, 0.99 Acid Detergent Fiber, 1.68 % phenols, and 4.02 mannose/galactose ratios.  Pulp has an av. of 10.98% moisture, 0.21 % ash, 0.47 % protein, 1.56 % acid-insol. matter, 5.15 pH, 3.39 % Neutral Detergent Fiber, 2.98 % Acid Detergent Fiber, 1.58 % total phenols, 0.36 % glucose, 2.85 % saccharose and 0.46 % fructose.  The best rheol. properties were noted for populations from Sliman, Ain Essobh, Khnis and Sayada populations.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts

 Hard capsule composition and method of use.      Cao, Karl Wei.  (Can.).    U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ.  (2011),     4pp.  CODEN: USXXCO  US  20110171298  A1  20110714  Patent  written in English.    Application: US  2010-687285  20100114.  Priority: US  2010-687285  20100114.  CAN 155:163604    AN 2011:879610    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

A method for making a clear hard vegetarian gelatin free two piece capsule by creating a first phase network system using a seaweed ext., a galactomannan ext. and a rheol. modifier.  A filler is created for the first phase network by blending a water, a cryst. alc., a polysaccharide, and a sugar alc. at a temp. less than 80 Fahrenheit.  The filler is then mixed into the first phase network system forming a biphasic system.  Capsules are then formed by dipping conventional molding pins into the biphasic soln., blowing hot air on the dipped pins in a chamber with a humidity that is no more than 25 percent, blowing away water on the outer surface of the dipped pins to bond and lock moisture to the polysaccharide and removing the capsule pieces from the pins.  The two piece capsule has an outer surface which is mech. and dimensionally stable.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Los frutos. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antidiarreico, laxante y astringente. 

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Cocimiento de harina con agua y/o leche formando papillas (1%).Extracto fluido (1:1): 50 gotas, tres veces al día. Goma de garrofín": capsulas o sobresw : 500 a 1500 mg, media hora antes de las comidas, acompañadas de abundante ingesta de agua o zumo. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: La "goma de garrofín" esta formada por un 90-95 % de polisacáridos mucilaginosos con estructura de galactomanano. Dicho galactomanano está constituido por una cadena principal de b-D-manosa con unión 1-4, con ramificaciones en la posición 6 formadas por una sola unidad de a-D-galactosa. La harina de algarroba contiene una gran cantidad de azúcares solubles (40-50%) y taninos codensados (20%). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Europa Mediterranea. 

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Origen y ecología:
Proviene de Siria y Palestina, de donde se ha extendido a los países mediterráneos hasta España. También se encuentran alunas variedades en países de América. Introducida en Canarias. No amenazada.

Propiedades e indicaciones terapéuticas:
- Derivadas de la experiencia de uso tradicional:
Las propiedades terapéuticas de la algarroba eran desconocidas hasta hace unas cuantas décadas. Se comenzaron a conocer durante la guerra y la postguerra civil española en que, al convertirse en un alimento de alto consumo, se pudo observar que disminuían muchísimo los episodios de diarrea en la población general, que luego pudo comprobarse en los estudios correspondientes.
- Según el contenido en principios activos o ensayos farmacológicos:
Frustos o harina de algarroba:
La presencia de taninos justifica la acción antidiarreica de la harina de algarroba por sus conocidas astringentes. Se aplica con éxito en las diarreas de lactantes. o niños pequeños y adultos. A nivel intestinal la harina de algarroba ejerce efecto antidiarreico por si efecto modulador del peristaltismo intestinal, por su efecto  protector limitante de irritaciones en la mucosa digestiva y antimicrobiano, disminuyendo la fermentación y putrefacción intestinales. La harina de algarroba tiene aplicación además para el control de los vómitos en pediatría y durante el embarazo.
Semillas o "goma de garrofín":
Los mucílagos poseen un potente efecto de absorción de agua con lo que aumentan la viscocidad del bolo alimenticio que se traducen en sensación de saciedad y diminución del apetito por lo que se utiliza como complemento en las dietas de control de peso. Otro efecto es la disminución en la absorción digestiva de los azúcares y las grasas provenientes de la alimentación lo que conlleva una disminución en la asimilación de calorías y una mejora de los niveles de colesterol y azucar en la sangre. También debido a los mucílagos la goma de garrofin se comporta como un laxante suave al absorver agua incrementando el volumen y la viscocidad de las heces que permanecen blandas y facilitan su evacuación.

Nota de alcance (en)

Origin:
Cultivated in Punjab.

Action:
Pod and husk from seed— antidiarrhoeal (stools in gastroenteritis and colitis are known to solidify within 48 h).

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripción. 4ª  ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p.111.

2) SIDINA, Mohamed Mahmoud, et al. Characterization and assessment of genetic differentiation in Moroccan carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) using isozymes markers. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2011, vol.11, nº2, p.64-68.
 
3) CUSTODIO, Luisa, et al. Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of the Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Germ Flour Extracts. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (New York, NY, United States). 2011, vol.66, nº1, p.78-84.
 
4) AGRAWAL, Ashok, et al. Antidepressant activity of Ceratonia siliqua L. fruit extract, a source of polyphenols. Natural Product Research. 2011, vol.25, nº4, p.450-456.
 
5) NAGHMOUCHI, S., et al.  Rheological and biochemical proprieties of Tunisian carob (Ceratonia siliqua) populations. Tunisian Journal of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products. 2009, vol.2, p.24-30.

6) Cruz Suárez, Jorge S. / Más de 100 plantas medicinaes : Medicina popular Canaria. La obra Social de Gran Canarias: Las Palmas de Gran Canarias, 2007. - 258 p.

7) Khare, C.P./ Indian Medicinal Plants. -- Nueva Dheli: Springer, 2007 . - p. 836.

Ceratonia siliqua L.
Término aceptado: 19-Oct-2010