Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

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PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Semillas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Aperitivo, antiflamatorio, hipoglucemiante.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Via interna : 6 g de droga pulverizada u otras preparaciones equivalentes. Via externa : 50 g de droga pulverizada hervida en 250 ml de agua y aplicada como cataplasma caliente y húmeda.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Las semillas contienen abundantes carbohidratos (25 %), proteínas (30 %) y lipidos (6-10 %). Los azúcares mayoritarios son mucílagos del tipo gala ctomanano, constituidos por cadenas de manosa con unión b-1,4, que soportan cadenas laterales de galactosa con uníon a-1,6 (relación galactosa: manosa= 1,5:1. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:  Sur de Europa. 

 

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DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Plant Trigonella foenum-graecum or fenugreek belongs to family Papilionaceae.  Two taxonomically Trigonella species and 61 accession were analyzed with 18 random primers to evaluate genetic diversity and species relation.  TFG and TC have been used for study, among these cultivars there is almost no or very little intraspecific difference in morphol. manifestations however TFG and TC elite cultivars.  Total genomic DNA was extd. by CTAB method with some modification.  PCR amplification was carried out by using master cycler gradient thermal cycler.  From total 18 primers screened across all species and accession scoring 141 bands of which 74 were polymorphic.  On av. 7.7 bands per primer were scored.  The percentage of polymorphic band ranged from 66% to 100% with an av. of 52.85%.  Only the amplified DNA fragment ranging in size between 200 to 1000 bps was used for statistical analyses.  Cluster anal. based on the presence or absence of band was performed by Jaccard's similarity coeff., based on unweighted pair group method with arithemetic avs. (UPGMA).  Genetic similarity ranged between 0.66 to 0.90, indicating a moderate to high genetic variability.  The highest similarity coeff. was detected between accession DA-30, VR-76, VR-67, DA-03 and DM-37, and the lowest in accession TFG sp. and TG sp., resp.  The dendrogram revealed two main clusters.  Each cluster was divided into subgroup.  This investigation showed that RAPD marker is a useful tool for evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship amongst different Trigonella species.

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is used as an herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions.  To det. if this plant has other beneficial effects, the authors tested the inhibitory activities of a methanol (MeOH) ext. of fenugreek seed on the prodn. of inflammatory cytokines and melanin synthesis in cultured cell lines in vitro.  The MeOH ext. inhibited the prodn. of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in cultured THP-1 cells, and also restrained the intracellular synthesis of melanin in murine melanoma B16F1 cells.  The authors isolated 3 active constituents from fenugreek seed exts.  These were identified as the steroidal saponins 26-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5(6)-en-3b,22b,26-triol-3-O-a-L-rhamno-pyranosyl-(1''®2')-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1'''®6')-O]-b-D-glucopyranoside 1, minutoside B 2, and pseudoprotodioscin 3.  Compds. 1 and 2 strongly suppressed the prodn. of inflammatory cytokines, whereas 3 showed a weaker suppressing effect.  Melanogenesis in B16F1 cells was significantly suppressed by 1 and 3, and weakly suppressed by 2.  All 3 compds. showed moderate cytotoxicities.  These results indicate that fenugreek ext. and its active constituents could protect against skin damage.

2) The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like activity of an ethanolic ext. prepd. from the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) using an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light dark transition model in mice.  In the EPM test, TFG seeds ext. (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) increased the percentage time spent and no. of entries in the open arm.  The effect was comparable to that of refs. compd., diazepam (2 mg/kg).  In light dark transition model, diazepam-treated rats significantly increased the time spent in light zone and decreased the duration of immobility, while TFG treated mice also showed a significant (p<0.01) increase in the time spent in light zone.  Diazepam and the TFG exts. do not produced any overt motor dysfunction.  These results indicate that TFG is an effective anxiolytic agent and could be useful in alternative treatment.

3) Diabetes is an oxidative stress disorder and oxidative damage to tissues such as heart, kidney, liver and other organs may be a contributory factor to several diabetic complications.  Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) and Trigonella foenum graecum (family: Fabaceae) are used traditionally in Indian folk medicine to manage diabetes mellitus.  In the present study, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative potential of aq. exts. of M. charantia pulp and seed powder of T. foenum graecum were assessed in alloxan (150 mg/kg body wt.) induced diabetic rats.  Alloxan treatment to the rats could induce diabetes as the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were >280 mg/dL.  Treatment of diabetic rats for 30 days with M. charantia and T. foenum graecum could significantly (p<0.001) improve the FBG levels to near normal glucose levels.  Antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione content and glutathione-s-transferase) and lipid peroxidn. levels were measured in heart, kidney and liver tissues of normal, diabetic and exptl. animals (diabetics + treatment).  TBARS levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher and anti-oxidative activities were found low in diabetic group, as compared to the control group.  Significant (p<0.001) improvement in both the TBARS levels and antioxidant activities were obsd. when M. charantia and T. foenum graecum were given to diabetic rats.  Our results clearly demonstrate that M. charantia and T. foenum graecum are not only useful in controlling the blood glucose levels, but also have antioxidant potential to protect vital organs such as heart and kidney against damage caused due to diabetes induced oxidative stress.

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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts

 Procedure for removal of odor and taste from the legume Trigonella foenum-graecum and food products, cosmetics, and medicines thereby obtained.      Ventura Sala, Francesc; Cunyat Marrugat, Merce.  (Spain).    Span.  (2011),     9pp.  CODEN: SPXXAD  ES  2351913  A1  20110214  Patent  written in Spanish.    Application: ES  2010-31701  20101118.  Priority: ES  2010-31701  20101118.  CAN 155:92433    AN 2011:863674    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

An acetic acid soln. (preferably vinegar) is used to remove odor and flavor from fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) seeds for use in food, cosmetics, and traditional medicine.  Maceration is continued for 4-12 h at a solid-to-fluid ratio of at least 1:1.  A mucilage is extractable for use in wound healing and dermatol. applications.

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripción. 4ta. ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p. 111.

2) SUNDARAM, Shanthy; PURWAR, Shalini. Assessment of genetic diversity among fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), using RAPD molecular markers. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011, vol.5, nº9, p.1543-1548.
 
3) KAWABATA, Tetsuro, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenic steroidal saponin glycosides from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds. Planta Medica. 2011, vol.77, nº7, p.705-710.
 
4) DHANANJAYA, D. R., et al.  Anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2011, vol.3, nº1, p.91-95.
 
5) TRIPATHI, Uma Nath; CHANDRA, Deepak.  Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 2010, vol.47, nº4, p.227-233.

Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Término aceptado: 20-Oct-2010