Pimpinella anisum L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES:

Hydro-distd. essential oils from fruits, aerial parts (without fruits) and roots of Pimpinella species native to Turkey and their phylogenetic relationships to one another were examd.  Phytochem. investigation of the essential oils of 19 species resulted in isolation of 16 phenylpropanoids, four sesquiterpenes and two azulene-type norsesquiterpenes.  The structures of the isolated compds. were detd. primarily from 1D- and 2D-NMR expts. as well as liq. chromatog.-mass spectrometry and gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry.  Phylogenetic relationships among 26 species were evaluated using ITS 1, ITS 4 nuclear rDNA and psbA-trnH cpDNA sequences.  In this study, significance and occurrence of phenylpropanoids, azulenes and geijerenes are discussed from a phylogenetic, chem. and biosynthetic perspective.  The distribution of different classes of compds. and their putative assocns. with one another as per current knowledge of their biosynthetic pathways indicates that this information, in conjunction with the phylogeny, could provide valuable information regarding the presence and perhaps evolution of the different classes of compds.  Anal. of the phenylpropanoid components indicates that (E)-anethole is an obligatory intermediate of this pathway.  The various Pimpinella species differ primarily in their ability to acylate anethole, suggesting that while the pathway leading to anethole is common to this genus, species differ in their enzymic machinery leading to acylate.  The relationship between azulenes and geijerenes is not as intuitive, but all Pimpinella species analyzed in this study have the biochem. machinery required to synthesize these chem. classes.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES

1)
Three antiviral and immunostimulating substances (LC1, LC2 and LC3) were isolated from a hot water ext. of seeds of Pimpinella anisum by combination of anion-exchange, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction column chromatogs.  Chem. and spectroscopic analyses revealed them to be lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes.  These lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCs) showed antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and measles virus.  LCs were also found to interfere with virus adsorption to the host cell surface and directly inactivate viruses.  Furthermore, they enhanced nitric oxide (NO) prodn. by inducing iNOS mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.  The induced mRNA expression of cytokines including IL-1b and IL-10 was also apparent.  These results suggest that the lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from P. anisum possessed potency as functional food ingredients against infectious diseases.

2)
The essential oil obtained by hydrodistn. from the fruits of Pimpinella anisum L. (green anise) and Foeniculum vulgare Miller (fennel) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS and physicochem. properties.  The oils of P. anisum and F. vulgare were found to be esp. rich in (E)-anethole, 96.3% and 92.7%, resp.  The MICs were detd. by the tube diln. method against Paenibacillus larvae.  The oils showed MICs values were 300 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL for P. anisum and F. vulgare, resp.  Both oils presented great similarity in physiochem. properties values and antimicrobial activity.

3) Recently, interest in plant-derived food additives has grown, mainly because of toxic effects assocd. with synthetic antioxidants.  In the present study, the chem. compn. and antioxidant properties of essential oil and oleoresins of the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum) was investigated.  Trans-anethole (90.1%) was the major component in anise oil while oleic acid was the major compd. in all the oleoresins.  The antioxidant activities were assessed by inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidn., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, Fe3+ reducing power and various lipid peroxidn. assays.  The anise oil and its methanol oleoresin showed highest antioxidant activity, even higher than BHA and BHT.  However, the antioxidant activities of other oleoresins were somewhat lower.  The results obtained from various expts. clearly establish the antioxidant potency of anise oil and its methanol and ethanol oleoresins, which can be utilized for protecting fat-contg. foods.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts
 

 Controlled release mentholated tobacco beads.      Karles, Georgios D.; Zhuang, Shuzhong; Zeng, Yi.  (Philip Morris USA Inc., USA).    U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ.  (2011),     11pp.  CODEN: USXXCO  US  20110232657  A1  20110929  Patent  written in English.    Application: US  2010-748259  20100326.  Priority: US  2010-748259  20100326.  CAN 155:426759    AN 2011:1235773    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

Encapsulated tobacco beads and processes of making the encapsulated tobacco beads are disclosed.  According to an embodiment, a process of making encapsulated tobacco beads comprises mixing tobacco particles and menthol in an aq. soln. to form a wet mass; extruding the wet mass to form extrudates; spheronizing the extrudates to form tobacco beads; drying the tobacco beads; contacting the beads with a soln. comprising a cation; and introducing the contacted tobacco beads into a soln. of coating material in a concn. effective to induce ionic gelation of the coating material around the beads, to form encapsulated tobacco beads having gel coatings.  According to another embodiment, an encapsulated tobacco bead comprises a core comprising tobacco particles and encapsulated menthol, an inner coating layer comprising hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or pectin, and an outer coating layer comprising an ionically-crosslinked gel.

Nota de alcance (en)

The infusion of the fruits is reported to be carminative. The fruits are ingredients in certain dishes (Cabrera n.d.; Martinez 1969).

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Whole plant: As a carminative and vermifuge in Cayenne, French Guiana, where it is an introduced plant.

Flower: Flowers are boiled and the water is drunk for treating stomachache, by the Guyana Patamona.

Seed: Dry seeds are boiled and the water is drunk for wing (gas) pain, by the Guyana Patamona.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Frutos. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Carminativo, digestivo, espasmolítico, expectorante y antiséptico. 

= Posology: Via Interna : Adultos: 1-5 g de frutos triturados en 150 ml de agua como infusión o preparado similar, varias veces al día . Niños(dosis media diaria): 0-1 año 1 g de frutos triturado en infusión u otro preparado no alcohólico; 1-4 años, 2g ; mas de 4 años, dosis de adultos. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA: Los frutos de anís contienen aceite esencial (2-6%), consituido principalmentepor trans-anteol (80-95 %) , responsable del olor y del sabor. Otros componentes minoritarios son : estragol (1-2 %), anisaldehído (menos del 1 %) e hidrocarburos sesquiterpenos( especialmente, y-himachaleno, prox. 2 %) y monoterpénicos (menos del 1%, diferencia respecto a anís estrellado). La esencia de anís verde original se caracteriza por la presenciade hasta un 5 % del éster 2-metibutirico del 4-metoxi-2-(1-proponil)-fenol.Otros constituyentes de la droga incluye : flavonoides, ácido fenoles, furocumarinas, hidroxicumarinas, aceite fijo. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA: Asia sudoccidental. 

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Frutos (popularmente conocidos como semillas)

Efectos: antiespasmódico, carminativo, colagogo, galactógeno.

Precauciones: a dosis altas puede resultar tóxico, por lo que debe utilizarse con moderación.

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Origen y ecología:
Parece tener origen en Egipto y Oriente Medio desde donde se extiende al mediterráneo a Europa y a España. Introducida. Cultivada.

Parte utilizada:
Los frutos

Propiedades e indicaciones terapéuticas:
- Derivadas de la experiencia de uso tradicional:
En la costumbre popular el anis es la infusión por excelensia como aperitiva, digestiva y carminativa, en todo el mundo se da a los niños lactantes casi desde que nacen para confortarles el estómago y aliviarle sus cólicos o flatulencias. Sobre el aparato respiratorio se utiliza en catarros, bronquitis y asma como antiespasmódico, expectorante y mucolítico. En algunos lugares se mezcla anis en el pienso de las vacas para aumentar su leche; también se considera galactógena para las madres de la especie humana, en este caso parece que el anis se elimina con la leche y puede beneficiar además al lactante.
- Según el contenido en principios activos o ensayos farmacológicos:
Se han desarrollado estudios farmacológicoscon aceite esencial deanis verde o con anetol que han en experimentos con animales de laboratorio los siguientes efectos: actividad antiséptica, antimicrobiana y antimicótica, actividad antiespasmódica, mucolítica y expectorante; y también acción lactogoga o favorecedora de la secreción láctea materna, (Barnes, Joanes. Anderson. Linda A. y Phillipson, J. David, 2004).
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Enfermedad o síntoma
Dolor de estómago - Empacho

Parte utilizada
Fruto y semilla

Forma de preparación
Infusión

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripcion. 4ª  ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p. 122-123.

2) TABANCA, Nurhayat, et al. Patterns of essential oil relationships in Pimpinella (Umbelliferae) based on phylogenetic relationships using nuclear and chloroplast sequences. Plant Genetic Resources. 2005, vol.3, nº2, p.149-169.
 
3) LEE, Jung-Bum, et al.  Antiviral and immunostimulating effects of lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from Pimpinella anisum. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2011, vol.75, nº3, p.459-465.
 
4) GENDE, Liesel B., et al.  Antimicrobial activity of Pimpinella anisum and Foeniculum vulgare essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2009, vol.21, nº1, p.91-93.
 
5) SINGH, G., et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oil and oleoresins from anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics. 2008, vol.2, nº3, p.122-130.

6) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 270.

7) Nicholson Michael S. ; Arzhennithe, Charles . Economic Botany. vol. 47 . --p. 184-192 1993

8) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

9) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

10) Cruz Suárez, Jorge S. / Más de 100 plantas medicinaes : Medicina popular Canaria. La obra Social de Gran Canarias: Las Palmas de Gran Canarias, 2007. - 258 p.

11) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Pimpinella anisum L.
Término aceptado: 05-Nov-2010