Saccharum officinarum L.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Tallo.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antioxidante, hipolipemiante, antiagregante, antiesquémica y antitrombótica.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: El policosanol se administra popr vía oral a dosis de 10 mg/día.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: La caña de azucar contiene glúcidos, fundamentalmente sacaqrosa, que por hidrólisis ácidaorigina la glucosa y fructuosa en igual proporción . A partir de la cera del tallo se obtiene el policosanol (PPG), que es una mezcla de alcholes alifáticos primarios superiores entre los que se destacan: el 1-octacosanol como componente mayoritario; 1-hexacosanol; 1-heptacosanol; 1-nonaconasol; 1-tricontanol; 1-dotriacontanol; 1-tetracosanol; 1-tetratriacontanol. Otro componente el acido glicolico.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Sudamerica

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
A review.  Sugarcane is one of the most important field crops grown in the tropics and sub-tropics.  Conventional and biotechnol. research inputs have contributed in solving some of the constraints limiting crop productivity.  However, limitations such as complex genome, narrow genetic base, poor fertility, susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses and long duration to breed elite cultivars, hinder crop improvement programs.  Sugarcane, thus, is a suitable candidate for application of plant biotechnol. and genetic engineering tools.  In this direction, we have been working towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane.  Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochem., physiol. and mol. tools.  This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement.
 
2) A field trial was conducted during rabi seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle with an objective to evaluate certain integrated pest management practices against sugarcane white woolly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner including chem. insecticides using '93 A 145' variety.  Among different IPM tactics like removal and destruction of infested leaves, conservation and field release of predators like Chrysoperla carnea and Micromus igorotus could achieve the pest population to certain extent in small pockets only.  But in an on - farm trial conducted in the farmers' fields with certain insecticides reduced the population drastically.  The results indicated that all the treatments tested have reduced significantly the woolly aphid incidence over control.  Among different insecticides imidacloprid (0.25 mL/lt), chlorpyriphos (2.5ml/lt), oxydematon Me (2ml/lt) and thiomethoxam (0.2g/lt) reduced the population to an extent of 90% and 100% at one day and 3 days after spraying resp.  Even water spray could reduce the incidence to an extent of 40% and 65% at 0 and 3 days after spraying resp.

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: anemia, hypertension, leshmaniasis, respiratory failure, diuretic.                                                 

Origin: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Caribbean, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French, Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Mexico, New guinea, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Taiwan, Turkey, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela.    

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Stem: Juice used to treat snakebite and wounds from poison arrows. Juice mixed with infusion of "wallaba" (Eperua sp.) to treat urari (curare) poisoning by the Guyana Macusi. Yields sugar; finely ground sugar is used for eye diseases in French Guiana by blowing it into a leucoma of the cornea. Sugar in a mix rubbed onto rheumatism afflicted areas. Whole sugar for vermifuge. Powdered sugar for a detersive. Sugar cane eaten for a blood-cleanser, digestive and to prevent dental cavities. In Guyana, granulated sugar is sometimes placed on a scald or burn for quick relief.

Sap: Used for coughs and colds as well as to treat snakebite in NW Guyana.

Leaf: Decoction of young leaves is used for urinary conditions.

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Origin: Native to Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands, widely cultivated
elsewhere

Pharmacological Activities: Analgesic, Anticancer, Anti-inflammatory, Antiosteoporotic, Antioxidant, Antiplatelet, Antithrombotic, Hypocholesterolaemic, Immunomodulatory, Immunostimulatory, Antiatherogenic and Myocardial protective

Nota bibliográfica (en)

Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripción.   ed. Barcelona : Masson, 2003, p.160

2) SUPRASANNA, P. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress.  BARC Newsletter. 2010, Vol., nº316, p.47-53.
 
3) RAO, Ch. V. Narasimha, et al. Bioefficacy of certain novel insecticides against sugarcane woolly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner. Pestology. 2008, Vol.32, nº11, p.44-46.

4) A guide to medicinal plants / Hwee Ling, Koh; Tung Kian, Chua; Chay Hoon, Tan. Singapore:  World vScientific Public Co. Pte. Ltd., 2009. p 289 p.

Saccharum officinarum L.
Término aceptado: 27-May-2011