Mikania glomerata Spreng.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hoja. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Es un febrífugo, usado para inflamaciones de boca y garganta. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Se reporta la presencia de los siguientes compuestos en las partes aéreas de esta planta: cumarina, ácido cinamoilgrandiflórico, ácido entkaur-16-eno-19-oico y estigmast-22-en-3-ol (Oliveira, et al., 1984). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) A review.  Historically, the majority of new drugs have been generated from natural products as well as from compds. derived from natural products.  In this context, Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata, popularly known as 'guaco', have a long history of use.  Brazilian Indians have an ancient tradition of using 'guaco' for snakebites.  In current herbal medicine in Brazil, 'guaco' is used as an effective natural bronchodilator, expectorant and cough suppressant employed for all types of upper respiratory problems including bronchitis, pleurisy, colds and flu, coughs and asthma.  In Brazil, this plant has been widely used, even as com. prepns.  Its medicinal properties are widely recognized, mainly in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, bronchodilator activity, anti-ulcerogenic, antiophidian as well as antibacterial and antiparasitic activity, although the efficacy of the antibacterial activity is so far controversial.  The studies on Mikania glomerata and M. laevigata have provided scientific evidence that those plants have a considerable anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential.

2) This work describes a full validation of a capillary gas chromatog. anal. methodol. using internal standardization for the quantification of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) in guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng-Asteraceae) products: syrup, plant and its ext., including the stability study of the phytomedicine.  For the anal., it was used an HP-5 capillary column (30 m ´ 0.32 mm ´ 0.25 mm), hydrogen at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min and the increasing temp. gradient was: 100° to 250°, 15°/min.  The temp. of injector (split 1:20) and detector were kept at 250° and 270°, resp.  The retention times of the stds. for the above conditions were 2.86 min for 1, 2, 3,4-tetramethylbenzene, 4.45 min for piperonal (internal stds.), and 5.36 min for coumarin.  After extn. procedure, the recovery of coumarin detd. for plant raw material was 101.6%, while for syrup it was 100.8%.  Detection and quantification limits were 0.5 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL, resp.  Precision was detd. for all samples and the results were < 2.5%.  The total amt. of coumarin in plant raw material, its ext. and syrup were 0.38% wt./wt., 1.33 mg/mL and 0.143 mg/mL, resp.

3) Several studies have reported biol. effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases.  Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure.  In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata exts. (MGE and MLE, resp.) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation.  Rats were pretreated for 2 wk with saline soln., MGE, or MLE.  On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solns. were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation.  Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed.  Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were detd.  In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated.  In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity.  MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH.  Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration.  The findings also suggest that both exts. present an important protective effect on the oxidn. of thiol groups.  Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathol. analyses.  The present study indicates that M. glomerata and M. laevigata might become good candidates for the prevention of lung oxidative injury caused by coal dust exposure.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Aerial parts of Mikania glomerata Sprengel, were irradiated with gamma rays in an app. with a Cesius-137 source in two different doses: 3.5 and 5.0 KGy.  Double-blind HPLC studies on fluid exts. and tinctures prepd. from the irradiated drug material were utilized to verify possible chem. changes.  Exts. from the same plant (untreated) were used as stds.  The results obtained showed that there was an increase in the coumarin content in the exts. obtained from irradiated plants (3.5 and 5.0 KGy) as well as a decrease in the o-coumaric acid concn.

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: malaria, expectorant, flu, cough.                                                 

Origin: Brazil.   

Nota bibliográfica

1) 270 (doscientos setenta) plantas medicinales iberoamericanas.  Santiago de Bogotá : CYTED-SECAB, 1995.

2) PEREGRINO, Carlos Augusto F.; LEITAO, Suzana G. Chromatographical profiles of fluid extracts and tinctures obtained from  Mikania   glomerata  sprengel sterilized by gamma ray irradiation.  Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2005, vol.15, nº3, p.237-242.
3) NAPIMOGA, Marcelo H.; YATSUDA, Regiane. Scientific evidence for Mikania laevigata and Mikania glomerata as a pharmacological tool. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010, vol.62, nº7, p.809-820.
4) BUENO, Paula C. P.; BASTOS, Jairo K. A validated capillary gas chromatography method for guaco (Mikania glomerata S.) quality control and rastreability: from plant biomass to phytomedicines. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2009, vol.19, nº1B, p.218-223.
5) FREITAS, Tiago P.; et al. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) Extracts on Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2008, vol.11, nº4, p.761-766.
6) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

Mikania glomerata Spreng.
Término aceptado: 27-May-2008