Matricaria chamomilla L.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The plant constituents of 42 olive oil exts. from chamomile flowers [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] were analyzed by GC, VIS-spectrometry, and HPLC to assess the effectiveness of the traditional extn. methods of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB 2008). The influence of the extn. temp. and the extn. period as well as the influence of stirring during the extn. period and of a pre-treatment of the herbal drug with ethanol 94% on the extn. efficiency was also studied. The results are presented in the form of transfer ratios with regard to the essential oil, the carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids and the phenolcarboxylic acids.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Antioxidants prevent the reaction of free radicals with biomols. and can remind the nutritional values and physiol. properties of foodstuffs.  There are two kinds of antioxidant agents, synthetic and natural, nowadays there is an increasing trend among food technologists to replace the synthetic kind with the natural ones.  Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well known and valuable medicinal plant that is used widely in Iranian traditional medicine.  The antioxidant activity of the essential oil derived from chamomile had proofed and in this study we show the antioxidant activity of chamomile ext. in fat-contg. foods.  The ext. was obtained by the mixt. of equal vol. of water and Et alc. (1:1).  The antioxidant activity was investigated with three methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.bul.) free radical scavenging system, det. of the peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) no.  The antioxidant activity of extd. oil in five concns. 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1mg/mL were detd. by measuring of peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in crud Helianthus Annuus (sunflower) oil.  In both systems, the antioxidant activity of the ext. was valuable and the antioxidant activities were raised by increasing of the extn. oil concns.  Results show that chamomile ext. could be used as a natural antioxidant in foodstuffs as a complementary material.

2) Morphol. traits and RAPD markers were used to analyze variation among different populations of M. chamomilla growing in four different provinces in Southwest of Iran along with some std. cultivars.  Variance anal. of morphol. traits showed that all evaluated traits were significantly different among populations.  Maximum coeffs. of variability were belonging to wt. of plants (87.94%) and no. of flower per plant (62.64%).  Dendrogram was drawn based on Euclidean distances from morphol. data matrix.  All populations were represented into two main groups.  With regards to yield of flowers, oil yield, plant height, etc., some populations showed performance equal to std. cultivars.  In RAPD anal. 18 selected primers produced 220 bands, of which 205 were polymorphic.  The ranges of similarity between populations were varied from 0.15 to 0.78.  According to the UPGMA derived dendrogram, at a similarity level of 0.25, the populations were divided into two main groups.  With regard to Nei's genetic diversity parameters calcd. for different provinces of origins, max. and min. no. of effective alleles was obsd. in Khuzestan (1.657) and Fars (1.142) provinces, resp.  The percentage of polymorphic loci (P loci%), Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon's information index (I), calcd. for different provinces, indicated that diversity was highest within Khuzestan province (P loci = 90.29%, h = 0.364 and I = 0.528) and lowest within Fars province (P loci = 20.87%, h = 0.16 and I = 0.23).  Wide domain of genetic variability revealed in this study could be considered as a gene pool available for German chamomile improvement through selection and hybridization breeding programs.  High heterosis effects will be expected for hybrids of these genetically diverse and talent populations.

3)  The anticancer activity of hydro distd. essential oils obtained from flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. and the dried leaves of Marjorana hortensis cultivated in Egypt against leukemia HL-60 and NB4 cells were tested in vitro.  HL-60 and NB4 cells were incubated with different levels of two essential oils 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 ppm for viability test and the percentages of dead HL-60 cells after 24 h were 22.8%, 36%, 46.2%, 67.5%, 78.4% resp. by treated with chamomile oil and 17.55%, 21.11%, 27.55%, 39.2%, 52.59% resp. by treated with marjoram oil, while the percentages of dead NB4 cells were 17.1%, 26.67%, 55.86%, 76.1%, 86.03% resp. by treated with chamomile oil and 21.3%, 29.61%, 36.23%, 57.9%, 67.88% resp. by treated with marjoram oil.  On the other hand the antioxidant activity of essential oils against DPPH radical was detd. in vitro by treated with different concns. of two essential oils 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 ppm and the percentages of DPPH inhibition were 19.57%, 34.41%, 45.39%, 63.11%, 94.03% resp. by treated with chamomile oil, whereas treated with marjoram oil the percentages of DPPH inhibition were 20.5%, 35%, 39.79%, 49.52%, 76.37% resp.  Chem. compns. of essential oils were examd. by gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).  Chamomile oil was found to contain 47 compds., the major components being bisabolol oxide A, B (37.85%), chamazulene (14.77%), guaiazulene (12.42%), alpha-bisabolol (9.81%) and bisabolone oxide A (4.12%), while marjoram oil anal. reached 23 compds., the major components being terpinen-4-ol (35.33%), gamma-terpinene (15.0%), alpha-terpinene (10.72%), alpha-terpineol (5.89%), and linalool (3.81%).  The essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla and Marjorana hortensis could be used as a potential natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.

Nota de alcance (en)

An infusion of the whole plant is used as a carminative for infants and to control colic of infants. The infusion is also ingested as an emmenagogue, employed as a wash for the skin, and used as eye and nose drops (González F. 1979; González F. and González S. 1980; González S. 1979; Linares, Penafiel, and Bye 1988; Martinez 1969; Sánchez C. 1981).

Flower, leaf: belly pain, cough, menstrual pain, nerves, ovaries,

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Uses: calmative, natural viagra, local pain, fever, infantile colic, diarreha, bloating, stomach, gases, poor digestion, constipation, feeling of fullness.                                                 

Origin: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Russian federation, China, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan.                

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Inflorescencias.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antiespasmódico y antiinflamatorio a nivel gástrico. 

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Se emplea bajo la forma de infusión para los dolores de ventere y calambres de estomago. La infusión es al 1%.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Los capítulos contienen un principio amargo aromático (ácido antémico) considerado como un tónico suave, pero puede ser emético en grandes dosis. El té de manzanilla se toma después de las comidas. El aceite de manzanilla es usado en licores, perfumes y shampúes. Uno de los componentes químicos de la manzanilla, el azuleno, tiene acción antiinflamatoria. La chamilina se dice que es un agente espasmolítico. El camazuleno se dice que posee propiedades antiinflamatorias, antisépticas, antiespasmódicas y vulnerario... Contiene polisacáridos inmunoestimulantes, (mucopolisacáridos) induciendo al organismo a aumentar sus defensas contra infecciones y también contra células formadoras de tumores (actividad antitumoral inmunoinducida. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil. 

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Capítulos florales, hojas, ramas: antiinflamotorio, antiespasmódico, analgésico.

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Origen: Es una planta nativa de Eurasia, se vende en los mercados de América Central  y Sur América.

Usos:
Disminuye los gases del tubo digestivo; favorece la expulión del sudor; entona y/o estimula los órganos gastrointestinales y el hígado; disminuye cólicos y/o diarreas; disminuye el dolor de estómago y el dolor menstrual; favorece la expulsión del aire y alivia dolores del vientre; ayuda a sanar heridas e infecciones.
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Usos tradicionales:
a) uso interno: trastornos digestivos (dolor de estómago, indigestión, digestiones difíciles de tipo crónico (dispepsia), cólicos, flatulencia, diarreas); afecciones de las vías urinarias (cistitis o inflamación de la vejiga); dolores menstruales; insomnio.
La infusión se prepara con una cucharada de flores para 1 litro agua recién hervida; dejar reposar, filtrar y beber 1 taza 3 veces al día.
b) uso externo: heridas superficiales, contusiones, picaduras de insectos; irritaciones e infecciones en la boca; ojos irritados; cólicos abdominales; hemorroides.
Usar la misma infusión como gargarismos y para lavar y descongestionar los ojos.
Usar como compresas calientes sobre pared abdominal en caso de cólicos. En hemorroides usar primero como vahos de asiento (cuando la infusión está caliente) y luego en baños de asiento (cuando la temperatura es tolerable sin quemarse).

Efectos: antibacteriano, antiespasmódico, diurético suave, carminativo, anti-inflamatorio, cicatrizante.
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Matricaria chamomilla L.

Uso tradicional:
esta especie se usa para tratar problemas estomacales (cólicos, dolor de estómago, diarrea), cólicos menstruales y para los nervios. Según INVIMA (2000, 2003) las flores de esta especie se usan como antinflamatorio y antiespasmódico.

Método de empleo:
se utilizan las hojas, flores o ramas de individuos en cualquier edad principalmente adultos. Las partes de la planta son recogidas en cualquier tiempo, preferiblemente durante el invierno. Se prepara una bebida hirviendo las partes de la planta en agua o como infusión en agua o leche.

Origen: Colombia

Nota bibliográfica

1) OLIVEIRA SIMOES, Claudia María, et al. Plantas da medicina popular no Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre : UFGRS, 1986, p. 36.

2) ALONSO PAZ, Eduardo ; BASSAGODA, María Julia ; FERREIRA, Fernando. Yuyos : uso racional de las plantas medicinales. Montevideo : Fin de siglo, 1992, p. 66-67.

3) HELDMAIER, M.; BEYER-KOSCHITZKE, J.; STAHL-BISKUP, E. Oil extracts of herbal drugs - optimisation of the extraction parameters. Pharmazie. 2009, vol.64, nº6, p.403-406.
 
4) SAZEGAR, M. R.; et al. The antioxidant activity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) extract in sunflower oil. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2010, vol.9, nº8, p.873-878.
 
5) PIRKHEZRI, M.; HASSANI, M. E.; HADIAN, J.  Genetic diversity in different populations of Matricaria chamomilla L. growing in Southwest of Iran, based on morphological and RAPD markers. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 2010, vol.4, nº1, p.1-13.
 
6) ROMEILAH, Ramy M. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Matricaria chamomilla L. and Marjorana hortensis essential oils. Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2009, vol.4, nº2, p.332-339.

7) Nicholson Michael S. ; Arzhennithe, Charles . Economic Botany. vol. 47 . --p. 184-192 1993

8) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

9) Escalona Cruz, José Luis; et al/ Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales vol. 20, no 4. 2015. p -- 429 - 439

10) Quesada Hernàndez, Alonso/ Herbario nacional de Costa Rica. Costa Rica: Arena Trans Amèrica, 2008. - p. 61

11) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

12) Arango Caro, Sandra /Guía de plantas medicinales de uso común en Salento, Colombia. St. Lois : Missouri Botanical Garden Press., 2004. - p. 71

Matricaria chamomilla L.
Término aceptado: 27-Ago-2007