Vaccinium myrtillus

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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts

Methods and compounds for reducing allergic reactions to hair dyes.      Basketter, David; McFaddan, John; White, Ian.  (HDS Limited, UK).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2010),     24pp.  CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2010146142  A2  20101223  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CL, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PE, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TH, TJ.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, MT, NL, NO, PT, SE, SM, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2010-EP58593  20100617.  Priority: GB  2009-10629  20090619; US  2009-223241P  20090706.  CAN 154:94870    AN 2010:1605015    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

Conventional com. hair dyes form potent allergens and may also have irritant properties.  If they were not already well established in the market and the side effects tolerated by consumers they would likely be deemed unsafe for use.  The invention relates to compds., compns., formulations and methods for reducing, avoiding or eliminating allergic contact dermatitis reactions to conventional com. hair dyes.

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DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:
 

Two data sets are presented to identify the effect of growth location and origin of parental plant on anthocyanidin concns. in Vaccinium myrtillus fruits.  Bilberries were collected from wild populations growing at different latitudes and from cultivated plants originating from different geog. locations but grown in the same location for over 10 years.  High-performance liq. chromatog. anal. showed that anthocyanidin concns. varied significantly with latitude and with geog. origin, with higher values form northern latitudes or from a more northerly origin of parent plants.  The results show that anthocyanidin concns. in bilberries are under strong genetic control but are also influenced by climatic factors.  Furthermore, the proportions of specific anthocyanidins differed between latitudes and between plants with different parental origins.  The diversity in anthocyanidin concn. and compn. has important implications for plant breeders and for future development of varieties with high antioxidant capacity. (2)

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
Bilberry is a characteristic field layer species in the boreal forests and is an important forage plant for herbivores of the North European ecosystem.  Bilberry leaves contain high levels of phenolic compds., esp. hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins.  The phenolic compn. of bilberry leaves was investigated in two studies, one following foliar development in forest and open areas, and the other along a wide geog. gradient from south to north boreal forests in Finland.  An anal. of bilberry leaves collected in open and forest areas showed that major phenolic changes appeared in the first stages of leaf development, but, most importantly, synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids was delayed in the forest compared to the high light sites.  Sampling along a geog. gradient in the boreal zone indicated that leaves from higher latitudes and higher altitudes had greater sol. phenolic and flavonol levels, higher antioxidant capacity, and lower contents of chlorogenic acid derivs.  The ecol. significance of the results is discussed. (3)

2) A review.  Bilberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) were one of the most frequently used antidiabetic remedies of plant origin before the discovery of insulin.  During the last century, many animal, clin., and phytochem. studies were undertaken with this plant and its exts. and are summarized here.  Overall, it must be concluded that the results were more or less disappointing and could not support the traditional use of bilberry leaves against diabetes mellitus which is sometimes recommended even up to the present day. (4)

3) The use of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) as a food and medicine for improving human vision has a long history all over the world.  However, there is lack of convincing evidence from rigorous clin. trials or scientific research.  This study investigated the effects of different concns. of bilberry exts. on the cell viability, cell cycle and the expression of hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycans of cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells.  The data showed that bilberry exts. had no cytotoxicity to the corneal limbal epithelial cells at a wide range of concns. (10-9-10-4 M, equalized to the content of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside).  Bilberry ext. (10-6, 10-5 and 10-4 M) increased cell viability after 48 h incubation.  The no. of cells decreased in G0/G1 phase and increased prominently in S and G2/M phases after treatment with bilberry exts. at a high concn. (10-4 M).  The expression of glycosaminoglycans increased prominently after incubation with bilberry exts. (10-7 and 10-4 M) for 48 h while no significant changes were obsd. for the expression of hyaluronic acid.  The results indicated that bilberry ext. may be beneficial for the physiol. renewal and homeostasis of corneal epithelial cells. (5)

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PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Las hojas y frutos, que maduran en agosto y septiembre.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Antidiabético, tónico, antiséptico, nutritivo, diurético, hemostático y astringente.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology
:
Afecciones intestinales alteradas (regulación). Coger un puñado de frutos secos, lavarlos y comerlos. Se toma 2 o 3 veces al día. En poco tiempo regula las funciones intestinales.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Las hojas contienen bastantes taninos catéquicos; son ricas en hierro y manganeso, así como en ácidos orgánicos, flavonoides, ácidos ursólicos, mirtilina, y provitaminas A y vitaminas A y C. Los frutos llevan azúcares invertidos, taninos gálicos, antocianinas, mirtilina y vitaminas A y C. Azúcares, pectina, caroteno y flavonoides (rutósido). .

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Camino de Santiago.

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Droga: los frutos y las hojs.

Propiedades:
Aniinflamattoria, antihemorrágica, astringente, antisépttica, actividad vitamínica P, que mejora la circulación, aumenta la resistencia y controla la permeabilidad capilar.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 42.

2) AAKERSTROM, Andreas, et al. Effects of Latitude-Related Factors and Geographical Origin on Anthocyanidin Concentrations in Fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Bilberries).  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010, Vol.58, nº22, p.11939-11945.

3) MARTZ, Francoise, et al. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Leaves in Northern Europe Following Foliar Development and Along Environmental Gradients.  Journal of Chemical Ecology  (2010),  36(9),  1017-1028.        
 
4) HELMSTAEDTER, A.; Schuster, N. Vaccinium myrtillus as an antidiabetic medicinal plant - research through the ages.  Pharmazie. 2010, Vol.65, nº5, p.315-327.
 
5) SONG, Juxian, et al.. Protective effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extracts on cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells (HCLEC).  Phytotherapy Research. 2010, Vol.24, nº4, p.520-524.

6) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 277.

7) Linares Gimeno, Nuria/ Plantas Medicinales: cuaderno de trabajo. UPA: Madrid, 2013. p . - 67

Vaccinium myrtillus
Término aceptado: 17-Oct-2011