Ballota nigra

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Las hojas frescas y las sumidades floridas frescas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Sedante, diurético, antiespasmódico, hipotensor y detersivo.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
Vómitos y dispepsias nerviosas. Preparar una infusión con 1 g de las sumidades floridas en 150 cm cubicos de agua. Dejar reposar durante 10 minutos y filtrar. Agregar 1 cucharada de miel. Tomar 2 veces al dia. Cuando hay vómitos, tomar un vaso de 150 cm cubicos nada más vomitar. En los estados digestivos difíciles, cuando se anda mucho da un buen resultado. Tomar la infusión antes de comer.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Las flores y hojas contienen malato y pectinato potásicos. En el rizoma contiene azúcar (estaquiosa). El olor fuerte que desprenden las hojas y flores, es producido por un aceite esencial, que también lleva el tallo.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Caminos de Santiago.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The ability of Ballota nigra (Lamiaceae) infusion to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical, reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, hypochlorous acid) and nitric oxide was investigated.  The tested infusion mainly exhibited a potent scavenging effect on DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals.  In hydroxyl radical assay a potent pro-oxidant activity was noticed.  No effect was found against hypochlorous acid.  A phytochem. study was also undertaken, and 7 phenolic compds. (chlorogenic, caffeic and caffeoylmalic acids, ballotetroside, forsythoside B, verbascoside and allysonoside) and 8 org. acids (oxalic, aconitic, citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids) were identified and quantified by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, resp.  Forsythoside B and quinic acid were revealed to be the main compds. in this infusion.

2) Two lactoylated flavonoids, luteolin-7-lactate and luteolin-7-glucosyl-lactate were isolated from Ballota nigra.  They should be used for the chem. standardization of this drug of medicinal interest.

3) Ballota nigra is a European plant known for its neurosedative properties.  In this study, the ability of 5 phenylpropanoids (verbascoside, forsythoside B, arenarioside, ballotetroside, and caffeoyl malic acid) isolated from a hydroalcoholic ext., to bind to benzodiazepine, dopaminergic, and morphinic receptors was investigated.  To carry out these studies, affinity tests with rat striata, entire brains, and receptor rich prepns. were employed.  In addn., the phenolic aspect of these 5 phenylpropanoid esters led to investigate antioxidant activities using cell-free expts. and cellular expts. including isolated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN).  Effects of phenylpropanoid esters against reactive oxygen species as superoxide anion, peroxide hydrogen, hypochlorous acid, and hydroxyl radical were tested.  These mols. are liberated by PMN during inflammatory disorders, so that reprodn. of this process in vitro stimulating PMN by chem. stimulants was undertaken.  Results show that 4 of the 5 compds. are able to bind to the studied receptors.  Inhibitory concns. at 50% were detd. and vary from 0.4 to 4.7 mg/mL.  This may be in relation with the B. nigra known neurosedative activities.  Results concerning antioxidant investigations evidence an ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species.  Inhibitory concns. at 50% obtained are comparable to those of known antioxidant drugs (mesna or N-acetyl cysteine).  Moreover, the use of different stimuli having various pathways of action on PMN oxidative metab. permits to establish that each phenylpropanoid ester has its own particular way of action using protein kinase C or phospholipase C pathways.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 142.

2) VRCHOVSKA, Vendula, et al. Antioxidative properties and phytochemical composition of Ballota nigra infusion.   Food Chemistry. 2007, vol.105, nº4, p.1396-1403.
3) BERTRAND, Marie-Caroline; TILLEQUIN, Francois; BAILLEUL, Francois.  Two major flavonoids from Ballota nigra.  Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2000, vol.28, nº10, p.1031-1033.
4) DAELS-RAKOTOARISON, Dominique A., et al. Neurosedative and antioxidant activities of phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra.  Arzneimittel-Forschung. 2000, vol.50, p.16-23.

Ballota nigra
Término aceptado: 25-Oct-2011