Viscum album

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Las hojas y frutos frescos.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Diurético, cardiotónico e hipotensor.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
Sabañones. Hervir durante 10 minutos de 150 a 200 g de hojas frescas en 1 litro de agua. Colar. Lavar varias veces las partes afectadas por los sabañones, durante la noche y al comienzo de la caminata, por la mañana. Si persisten, se repetirá durante varias noches la misma operación.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Lecitinas, proteínas, fenilpropanos, flavonoides polisacáridos, tiramina, saponósidos triterpénicos y ácidos. El componente principal de las hojas es la colina.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Caminos de Santiago.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:
 
To find the alternative for antibiotic this study was carried out to investigate the differentially expressed proteome between Salmonella gallinarum infected and uninfected control in the spleen lymphocytes of ROS broiler chicks fed with Korean mistletoe using proteomic approach.  Total four protein spots were detected with differential expression from the chicken spleen lymphocyte in 2DE gels after silver staining.  These proteins were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS.  Two known proteins were up-regulated viz., Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) and MRP-126 and 2 proteins were down regulated viz., ribosomal protein 12, pyruvate kinase.  In this exptl. fowl typhoid infection in broilers fed with Korean mistletoe through proteomics approach significant differential expression of four proteins were found which appears to be candidate mols. for fowl typhoid.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
4'-O-[b-D-Apiosyl(1®2)|-b-D-glucosyl]-5-hydroxyl-7-O-sinapylflavanone , 3-(4-acetoxy-3,5-dimethoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (3), 5,7-dimethoxy-4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside flavanone (4), 4',5-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy flavanone (5), and 5,7-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavanone (6), were isolated from the org. exts. of Viscum album L. (European Mistletoe).  These compds. were studied for their anti-glycation and antioxidant properties.  The structures of new compds. 1 and 2 were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
 
2) In this study, ethanolic exts. obtained from European mistletoe (Viscum album) and European birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis) were investigated for total polyphenols and flavonoid contents, Fe2+ chelating ability and free radicals scavenging activity.  Scavenging activity was studied for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH×), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide.  The obtained results indicate a higher content in polyphenols and flavonoids in case of birthwort ext. comparatively to mistletoe ext.  The polyphenols contained by the two alc. exts. have the ability to act as hydrogen donors and can chelate Fe2+; hydrogen donating ability using DPPH× assay and Fe2+ chelating ability were found to be higher for birthwort ext.  Also, the two vegetal exts. had a good scavenging activity against superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide, while for hydrogen peroxide the activity was low.  Generally, free radicals scavenging activity was superior in case of birthwort ext. comparatively to mistletoe ext.
 
3) Polyphenolic compds. are widely distributed in plants and known to be excellent antioxidants in vitro.  They have the capacity to reduce free-radical formation by scavenging free-radicals.  In this study we have evaluated the antioxidant and antimutagenic potencies of polyphenolic compds. of Viscum album against trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced oxidative and genotoxic damage.  V. album ext. (VAE 0.5 mg/mL) protected human lymphocytes against TCE.  In chromosomal aberration (CA) anal., no significant increase in total aberrations were found after treatment with TCE and all VAE concns.  The mitotic index (MI) showed significant increase in 0.5 mg/mL VAE samples when compared with TCE-treated (2 mM) group.  VAE (0.5 mg/mL) reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly whereas VAE (1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL) samples increased MDA concns. significantly.  We have also shown that the various DNA effects of TCE treatment seem to be DNA damages, but not mutations as TCE treated profiles were reverted back to the control like profiles by most probably DNA repair mechanisms in VAE 0.5 mg/mL treated group.

Nota bibliográfica

BIBLIOGRAFIA

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 156.

2) SO, Hyun-Kyung, et al. Biomarkers identified by proteomic study of spleen lymphocyte from broilers infected with Salmonella gallinarum after feeding Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum).  Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2009, vol.4, nº3, p.148-159.
 
3) CHOUDHARY, M. Iqbal, et al. Characterization and antiglycation activity of phenolic constituents from Viscum album (European Mistletoe).  Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2010, vol.58, nº7, p.980-982.
 
4) PAPUC, Camelia, et al. Free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activity of European mistletoe (Viscum album) and European birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis).    Revista de Chimie (Bucharest, Romania). 2010, vol.61, nº7, p.619-622.
 
5) ALPSOY, L., et al. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Viscum album fruit ethanolic extract in human lymphocytes. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010, vol.9, nº17, p.2539-2543.

Viscum album
Término aceptado: 25-Oct-2011