Nymphaea alba

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PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Las flores y las raíces frescas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action
Las flores poseen la cualidad de ser antiafrodisíacos, sedantes, hemostáticos y algo narcóticas. Las raíces tienen propiedades astringentes y antiespasmódicas.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Afecciones de bronquios, intestino y vejiga. Poner en infusión 1 litro de agua recién hervida con 15g de flores y rizomas secos o 40 g de los frescos. Dejar reposar durante 30 minutos. Colar y tomar durante el día toda la tisana a vasitos. Para los bronquios se suele endulzar la toma con miel; unos 100 g de miel de brezo por 1 litro de la tisana. Antiguamente, algunos peregrinos solían preparar la infusión con vino tinto, en casos de afecciones bronquiales e intestinales.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Las flores contienen un mucílago; el rizoma y las hojas llevan diversos alcaloides. El rizoma lleva un alcaloide, la nufarina y un glucósido, la ninfalina. En las hojas lleva taninos y miricitrina.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Caminos de Santiago.

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DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Angiosperms (flowering plants) dominate contemporary terrestrial flora with roughly 250,000 species, but their origin and early evolution are still poorly understood.  In recent years, mol. evidence has accumulated suggesting a dicotyledonous origin of monocots.  Phylogenetic reconstructions have suggested that several dicotyledonous groups that include taxa such as Amborella, Austrobaileya, and Nymphaea branch off as the most basal among angiosperms.  This has led to the concept of monocots, "eudicots," "basal dicots," and "ANITA" groupings.  Here, the sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast DNA of Nymphaea alba was presented.  Phylogenetic analyses of our 14-species data set, consisting of 29,991 aligned nucleotide positions per chloroplast genome, revealed consistent support for Nymphaea being a divergent member of a monophyletic dicot assemblage.  Three distinct angiosperm lineages were supported in the majority of our phylogenetic analyses-eudicots, Magnoliopsida, and monocots.  However, the monocot lineage leading to the grasses was the deepest branching.  Although analyses of only one individual gene alignment (out of 61) is consistent with some recently proposed hypotheses for the paraphyly of dicots, the authors also reported observations that nine genes do not support paraphyly of dicots.  Instead, they support the basal monocot-dicot split.  Consistent with this finding, the authors also reported observations suggesting that the monocot lineage leading to the grasses has the strongest phylogenetic affinity to gymnosperms.  The findings have general implications for studies of substitution model specification and analyses of concatenated genome data.

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs
This study aims to investigate the potential efficiency of white water lily (Nymphaea alba) to accumulate heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Mn) at four different concns. (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l) and 3 pH (5.5, 6.5 and 7.5) as well as the influence of pH and metal concn. in removal process.  Using the correlation coeff. and cluster anal. statistical methods, the present study investigated the high capability of plant leaf in accumulation of heavy metals.  Maximum accumulation is related to manganese (3.743 mg/g) at concn. 5 mg/L and pH 6.5 and the lowest level is found for cadmium (0.464 mg/g) at concn. 1 mg/L and pH 5.5.  Totally, the min. uptake occurred at the highest pH (7.5) and concn. (10 mg/L).  Cadmium and manganese accumulation levels in water lily tissue decreased by increasing in metal concn.  The max. accumulation of manganese (3.455 mg/g) fitted at concn. of 1 mg/L and pH 7.5.  However, the max. accumulation of cadmium (0.55 mg/g) fitted at concn. of 5 mg/L and pH 6.5.  By increasing of lead concn., uptake level decreased as well, but at concn. of 10 mg/L and pH 5.5 increased dramatically.  The residues of mentioned heavy metals in laboratorial solns. had ascending trend by increasing the metal concns. and decreasing trend by increasing pH.  Eventually, the max. residue of metals is related to cadmium (3.38 mg/L) and the min. is due to manganese (0.002 mg/L).  By considering the results, one can deduce that white water lily can be used as biol. filter in order to heavy metal elimination from industrial wastewater.  All these are emanated from characteristics of water lily, including resistance against wetlands and lakes environmental conditions, quick growth, simple cultivation and its good adaptation to environment.

2) Cryst. ellagic and gallic acids and their Me and Et esters were isolated from the N. alba flowers.  P-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, vanillic and ferulic acids were isolated, and the presence of bound forms of acids were demonstrated.

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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts
Nucleic acids and encoded proteins for enhancing yield-related traits in transgenic plants.      Hendriks, Janneke; Thimm, Oliver; Groth, Philip; Prokoudine, Alexandre; Ritte, Gerhard; Koenig, Claudia; Kulkarni, Resham; Kollipara, Krishna.  (BASF Plant Science Company GmbH, Germany).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2011),     186pp.  CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2011009801  A1  20110127  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CL, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PE, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TH, TJ.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, MT, NL, NO, PT, SE, SM, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2010-EP60233  20100715.  Priority: EP  2009-166280  20090723; US  2009-227839P  20090723; EP  2009-176194  20091117; US  2009-261775P  20091117.  CAN 154:151358    AN 2011:104952    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))   

A method for producing a plant with increased yield as compared to a corresponding wild-type plant whereby the method comprises at least the following step: increasing or generating in a plant or a part thereof one or more activities of a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of 26S proteasome subunit, ribosomal protein L36, autophagy-related protein, B0050 protein, branched-chain amino acid permease, calmodulin, carbon storage regulator, FK506-binding protein, g-glutamyl-g-aminobutyrate hydrolase, GM02LC38418 protein, heat stress transcription factor, mannan polymerase II complex subunit, mitochondrial precursor of Lon protease homolog, MutS protein homolog, phosphate transporter subunit, protein EFR3, pyruvate kinase, tellurite resistance protein, xanthine permease, and YAR047C protein.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 160.

2) GOREMYKIN, Vadim V., et al. The chloroplast genome of Nymphaea alba: Whole-genome analyses and the problem of identifying the most basal angiosperm. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2004, vol.21, nº7, p.1445-1454.
3) JAVADI, Elahe, et al. Removal of lead, cadmium and manganese from liquid solution using water lily (Nymphaea alba). Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. 2010, vol.8, nº3 & 4, Pt. 2, p.1220-1225.
4) JAMBOR, Jerzy; SKRZYPCZAK, Lutoslawa.  Phenolic acids from the flowers of Nymphaea alba. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 1992, vol.60, nº1-2, p.127-132.

Nymphaea alba
Término aceptado: 07-Nov-2011