Solanum tuberosum

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Three long-term nodal tissued cultured Russet Burbank potato clones and nine thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines, derived from the nodal lines, were assessed for genetic and epigenetic (in the form of DNA methylation) differences by AFLP and MSAP.  The treated regenerant lines were originally selected for superior resistance to common scab disease and acceptable tuber yield in pot and field trials.  The long-term, tissue culture clone lines exhibited genetic (8.75-15.63% polymorphisms) and epigenetic (12.56-26.13% polymorphisms) differences between them and may represent a stress response induced by normal plant growth disruption.  The thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines exhibited much higher significant (p < 0.05) genetic (2-29.38%) and epigenetic (45.22-51.76%) polymorphisms than the nodal cultured parent clones.  Methylation-sensitive mutations accumulated within the regenerant lines are significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to disease resistance.  However, linking phenotypic differences that could be of benefit to potato growers, to single gene sequence polymorphisms in a tetraploid plant such as the potato would be extremely difficult since it is assumed many desirable traits are under polygenic control.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
In this study, antioxidant activities in free-radical-mediated oxidative systems and the genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects of two proteins with mol. mass around 17 kDa, purified from Solanum betaceum fruits (cyphomine) and Solanum tuberosum tubers (solamarine), were investigated.  Both proteins inhibited uric acid formation with IC50 values between 55 and 60 mg/mL, and both proteins were able to reduce oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion in a dose-dependent manner.  Furthermore, the DPPH. redn. assay showed SC50 values of 55-73 mg/mL.  Cyphomine and solamarine were able to retain their antioxidant activity after heat treatment at 80 °C for 15 min.  Allium cepa and Salmonella/microsome assays showed no genotoxic and mutagenic effects.  Solamarine showed an antimutagenic effect against a direct mutagen (4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine).  Consequently, the present study showed that the investigated proteins are promising ingredients for the development of functional foods with a beneficial impact on human health and an important source for the prodn. of bioactive peptides.

2) The waterproof defense barrier of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber periderm consists of the suberized cells of phellem.  The distinct polyaliph. and polyarom. domains of suberin have sep. roles in the development of resistance to infections.  The aliph. suberin compn. and changes in the amts. of peel and extractive free suberized membrane i.e. raw suberin were studied in two potato varieties, Nikola and Asterix, during post-harvest storage for one year.  The amt. of peel increased from 2.33 to 4.80 g/kg in yellow-skinned Nikola and from 3.50 to 5.54 g/kg in red-skinned Asterix.  The raw suberin fraction accounted for 258.1 ± 16.6 mg/g in the of Nikola and 250.7 ± 36.3 mg/g in the peel of Asterix on av. during the storage period.  In addn. to increase in suberin up to 6 mo, the microscopic images of the peel and raw suberin indicated that the other components contributed to the peel mass increase.  The CHCl3-sol. suberin monomer fraction after methanolysis accounted for about 20% of the raw suberin in both varieties, indicating a const. ratio of suberin polyaliph. and polyarom. domain over the storage period. a,w-Diacids, fatty acids and arom. compds. were more abundant in Asterix, while w-hydroxyacids and fatty alcs. were more abundant in Nikola (all p = 0.000).  Small changes in the aliph. monomer compn. within each variety were seen during storage.
 
3) In anthocyanin biosynthesis, UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) catalyzes the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from UDP-glucose to the 3-hydroxyl group of anthocyanidins, producing the first stable anthocyanins.  The full-length cDNA of UFGT (designated as StUFGT) was isolated and characterized from Solanum tuberosum.  The full-length cDNA of StUFGT was 1536 bp containing a 1344 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 448 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 49.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.62.  Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that StUFGT has extensive homology with UFGTs from other plant species.  Phylogenetic analysis indicates that StUFGT belongs to the plant UFGT cluster.  StUFGT was found to be expressed in roots, stems, leafstalks and leaves.  Expression profiling analysis revealed that StUFGT expression was induced correspondingly by exogenous elicitors including gibberellic acid and sucrose, suggesting that UFGT might play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Solanum tuberosum at the transcriptional level.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts
 
Potato cultivar 'Shelford'.      Hoopes, Robert W.  (Frito-Lay North America, Inc., USA).    U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ.  (2011),     11pp.  CODEN: USXXCO  US  20110214198  A1  20110901  Patent  written in English.    Application: US  2010-715201  20100301.  Priority: US  2010-715201  20100301.  CAN 155:323795    AN 2011:1105174    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

A potato cultivar designated 'Shelford' is disclosed.  The invention relates to the tubers of potato cultivar 'Shelford', to the seeds of potato cultivar 'Shelford', to the plants of potato 'Shelford', to the plant parts of potato cultivar 'Shelford' and to methods for producing a potato plant produced by crossing potato cultivar 'Shelford' with itself or with another potato variety.  The invention also relates to methods for producing a potato plant contg. in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic potato plants and plant parts produced by those methods.  This invention also relates to potato cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from potato variety 'Shelford', to methods for producing other potato cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from potato cultivar 'Shelford' and to the potato plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods.  The invention further relates to hybrid potato tubers, seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing potato cultivar 'Shelford' with another potato cultivar.  Potato cultivar 'Shelford' also exhibits herbicide resistance as well as other biochem. alterations.

Nota de alcance (en)

Tuber: stomach pain

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Uses: wound healing.                                                 

Origin: Belize, Bolivia, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Madagascar, Mexico, Panama, Peru, South Africa, United States, Venezuela.                       

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Tubérculos.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Calmante y emoliente.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
Tratamiento para los panadizos, forunculos, abscesos, picaduras de avispas, abejas y otros insectos. Pelar la patata, rallarla y aplicar la rayadura sobre las partes afectadas, sujetarla con una venda. Se cambia de patata cada 2 horas. Suele rebajar muy bien las inflamaciones.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Los brotes jóvenes contienen mucha solanina (alcaloide. Toda la planta lleva alcaloides tóxicos (solanina, solanidina y solantreno). El tubérculo contiene fécula, tanino, vitamina C y B2. Cuando el tubérculo está verde contiene solanina.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Caminos de Santiago

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Enfermedad o síntoma
Leche materna escasa

Parte utilizada
Tubérculo

Forma de preparación
Decocción

Modo de administración
Vía oral

Origen
Tucumán, Argentina

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 176.

2) DANN, Alison L.; WILSON, Calum R. Comparative assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation among regenerants of potato (Solanum tuberosum) derived from long-term nodal tissue-culture and cell selection. Plant Cell Reports. 2011, vol.30, nº4, p.631-639.
 
3)  ORDONEZ, Roxana Mabel, et al. Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antimutagenic Properties of Purified Proteins from Solanum betaceum Fruits and Solanum tuberosum Tubers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011, vol.59, nº16, p.8655-8660.
 
4) JARVINEN, Riikka, et al. Differences in suberin content and composition between two varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and effect of post-harvest storage to the composition. LWT--Food Science and Technology. 2011, vol.44, nº6, p.1355-1361.
 
5) HU, Chaoyang, et al. Molecular analysis of a UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) gene from purple potato (Solanum tuberosum). Molecular biology reports. 2011, vol.38, nº1, p.561-567.

6) Barret, Bruce Economic Botany vol. 48, nro. 1 .-- p. 8-20 1994

7) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

8) Ceballos, Sergio J.; Perea Mario C./ Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol 13, no 1, 2014. - p. 47 - 68

Solanum tuberosum
Término aceptado: 07-Nov-2011