Pinus pinaster

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Flores, yemas, hojas y resina.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Diurético, irritante y rubefaciente.

EFECTOS ADVERSOS Y/O TOXICOLOGÍA= Adverse effects and toxicology:
  No es aconsejable que tomen tisanas hechas con las hojas y yemas quienes tengan problemas de inflamación de los riñones.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Gota, reuma y lumbago. Cocer durante 15 minutos 50 g de hojas frescas con 1 litro de agua. Dejar enfriar y colar. Tomar todo el líquido durante el día, repartiéndolo en 3 tomas: una en ayunas, otra al mediodía y la otra al acostarse. Algunos peregrinos solían añadir de 100 a 150 g de miel. Seguían el tratamiento por una semana, aunque este remedio, generalmente, se debe tomar durante 21 días, descansar una semana yy volver a tomar durante otros 21 días. Es un buen remedio auxiliar.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Aceites esenciales, resina (trementina), principios amargos (pinicrina), tanino (trementina) y tanino; en las flores y yemas un  aceite balsámico.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Caminos de Santiago

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Habitat fragmentation, i.e., the redn. of populations into small isolated remnants, is expected to increase spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations through nonrandom mating, lower population densities and potential aggregation of reproductive individuals.  We investigated the effects of population size redn. and genetic isolation on SGS in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) using a combined exptl. and simulation approach.  Maritime pine is a wind-pollinated conifer which has a scattered distribution in the Iberian Peninsula as a result of forest fires and habitat fragmentation.  Five highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellites were genotyped in a total of 394 individuals from two population pairs from the Iberian Peninsula, formed by one continuous and one fragmented population each.  In agreement with predictions, SGS was significant and stronger in fragments (Sp = 0.020 and Sp = 0.026) than in continuous populations, where significant SGS was detected for one population only (Sp = 0.010).  Simulations suggested that under fat-tailed dispersal, small population size is a stronger determinant of SGS than genetic isolation, while under normal dispersal, genetic isolation has a stronger effect.  SGS was always stronger in real populations than in simulations, except if unrealistically narrow dispersal and/or high variance of reproductive success were modelled (even when accounting for potential overestimation of SGS in real populations as a result of short-distance sampling).  This suggests that factors such as nonrandom mating or selection not considered in the simulations were addnl. operating on SGS in Iberian maritime pine populations.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
The potential of Univariate and Multivariate Anal. and specifically Principal Components Anal. (PCA), has been employed to assess the performance of pine needles as bioindicators of polycyclic arom. hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particularly emphasize the crucial importance of making a distinction between different pine species if more than one is sampled.  Four sampling sessions were done in 29 sites and needles of two common pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. in 19 sites and Pinus pinea L. in 12) were collected and analyzed using gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and PCA.  The results obtained indicated significant differences between species, attributed to their different morphol.  The mean total PAH concn. of the P. pinaster needles are over two times higher than P. pinea's.  This difference is lower when the results are presented in lipid wt., but still statistically significant.  Samples from the two sites with adjacent trees reinforce these conclusions, showing significant differences in terms of PAH mean concn. and arom. ring patterns.

2) The compn. and antiradical activity of procyanidins from the bark of two kinds of pine, Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata, were compared.  Both the total bark ext. and the fraction sol. in both water and Et acetate (OW) were evaluated, because of their promising results in previous expts.  Results showed that P. radiata bark was richer in total phenols and also in procyanidins, catechin always being the main unit, so terminal as extensional.  For P. pinaster, epicatechin was the predominant extension unit.  The mean d.p. (mDP) was higher for the latter.  Interestingly, opposite results were encountered for the corresponding OW fractions, where P. radiata showed a mDP of 2.9 vs. 2.3 of P. pinaster.  It was also found that the higher the mDP the higher was the specific antiradical activity.  The different procyanidin compn. and specific antiradical activity of the two kinds of barks, and particularly their OW fractions, may lead to the design of efficient natural antioxidants with application in the food industry.

3) Lignocellulosic residues, such as pine sawdust and almond hulls, were solvent-extd. under different exptl. conditions to optimize the yield of polyphenolic antioxidant compds., which were quantified.  The antioxidant power of exts. was evaluated by ability to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical.  Both materials were found to be important sources of phenolic antioxidants, although the efficiency of the extn. varied with the exptl. conditions.  Among the 3 solvents used (ethanol, methanol and water), ethanol was the most favorable for total extractables, although methanol was more selective for extg. polyphenolics.  For these latter, pine sawdust offered the best results, with a 3-10 times higher (0.1122 g/100 g in dry basis) total phenolics content than almond hulls but, despite this, phenols from hulls showed a higher antioxidant capacity (58 vs 34% of inhibition).

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts
 
Composition comprising metal-copper-antioxidant botanical pigment, extracts of Pinus pinaster bark and pilewort, and method of improving skin barrier function of compromised skin. Hansenne, Isabelle; Fares, Hani; Oresajo, Christian.  (L'Oreal, Fr.).    U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ.  (2009),     4pp.  CODEN: USXXCO  US  20090053337  A1  20090226  Patent  written in English.    Application: US  2007-842193  20070821.  Priority: US  2007-842193  20070821.  CAN 150:244626    AN 2009:233532    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

A compn. and method of improving skin barrier function of compromised skin by applying onto the compromised skin a compn. contg.: (a) a complex comprised of a metal-copper-antioxidant botanical pigment; (b) an ext. of pinus pinaster bark; (c) an ext. of pilewort; and (d) a carrier vehicle.  Thus, compn. comprised (in wt%): water 81.70, pentylene glycol 4.00, butylene glycol 4.00, denatured alc. 3.50, pilewort ext. 1.50, carbomer 1.10, Pinus pinaster bark ext. 1.00, sodium lactate 1.60, phenoxyethanol 0.75, sodium hydroxide 0.75, sodium-copper-chlorophyllin complex 0.10.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 182.

2) DE-LUCAS, A. I., et al. Spatial genetic structure in continuous and fragmented populations of Pinus pinaster Aiton.  Molecular Ecology. 2009, vol.18, nº22, p.4564-4576.

3) RATOLA, Nuno, et al. Differences between Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster as bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2011, vol.72, nº2, p.339-347.

4) JEREZ, Maria, et al.  A comparison between bark extracts from Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata: Antioxidant activity and procyanidin composition. Food Chemistry. 2006, vol.100, nº2, p.439-444.
 
5) PINELO, M., et al. Extraction of antioxidant phenolics from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus) and pine sawdust (Pinus pinaster).  Food Chemistry. 2003, vol.85, nº2, p.267-273.

Pinus pinaster
Término aceptado: 07-Nov-2011