Artemisia dracunculus L.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: aperitivo, eupéptico, carminativo y espasmolítico.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: una cucharadita de café por taza. Infundir 10 minutos. Tres tazas al día.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Aceite escencial  (0,5-1 %): estragol o metil-cavicol (68-80 %), cis y trans-ocimeno (6-12 %) y limoneno (2-6 %).

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:  Asia central.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The aim of this study was to det. the morphol. and genetic variability of five species of Artemisia: southernwood (A. abrotanum L.), tarragon (A. dracunculus L.), mugwort (A. absinthium L.), roman wormwood (A. pontica L.), and common wormwood (A. vulgaris L.) from the Collection of Medical Plants of the Vegetable Department of the University of Agricultural in Szczecin.  Morphol. variation among the Artemisia plants was detd. using biometric measurements, which included the growth dynamics, the height of the plants, the width of a leaf pair, the length and width of a leaf blade.  ISSR amplification was used to analyze polymorphisms of microsatellite sequences in the Artemisia genome and to evaluate genetic diversity among them.  Forty microsatellite primers were used in ISSR reactions.  Clear products were generated in reactions with fifteen of them.  In general, 120 loci were amplified (eight of the av.); five of them 71 turned out to be polymorphic, and 49 specific for the examd. species.  The longest ISSR products (.apprx.3000 bp) was amplified with the 854 primer and the shortest (.apprx.220 bp) with the 810 primer.  Anal. of the phylogenetic similarity dendrogram has shown wide range of diversity between studied species, which was from 3,6% to 56,7%.  The biggest genetic similarity (56,7%) characterized A. absinthium L. and A. dracunculus L. species.  Phylogenetic similarity A. pontica L. and A. abrotanum L. come to 15%, whereas A. vulgaris L. and A. dracunculus L. come to 49,6%.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

A review.  Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) has a long history of use as a spice and remedy.  Two well-described "cultivars" (Russian and French) are used widely and differ in ploidy level, morphol., and chem.  Key biol. active secondary metabolites are essential oils (0.15-3.1%), coumarins (>1%), flavonoids, and phenolcarbonic acids.  In vivo studies mainly in rodents, particularly from Russian sources, highlight potential anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antihyperglycemic effects.  Despite concerns about the toxic effects of two of its main constituents, estragole (up to 82%) and methyleugenol (up to 39%), no acute toxicity or mutagenic activity has been reported at doses relevant for human consumption.  Water exts. of A. dracunculus contain very low amts. of estragole and methyleugenol and, therefore, are considered to pose a very limited risk.  Overall, a stronger focus on clin. studies and precise taxonomic and phytochem. definition of the source material will be essential for future research efforts.

2) The EtOH ext. of tarragon Artemisia dracunculus, a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae, was found to potently inhibit a-MSH (a-MSH) induced melanin prodn. in B16 mouse melanoma cells.  Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two alkamide compds., iso-Bu (1) and piperidiyl (2) amides of undeca-2E,4E-dien-8,10-dynoic acid.  The resp. EC50 values for melanin biosynthesis inhibition were 1.8 and 2.3 mg/mL for 1 and 2.
3) Objective: Plant exts. are of considerable interest because of their antiepileptic activities.  However, the mechanisms of action are not clearly defined.  Materials and Methods: Here, the effects of Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) leaves ext. on excitability and electrophysiol. characteristics of snail neurons were investigated, using an intracellular recording technique.  Results: Application of tarragon ext. (0.05%) resulted in complete disappearance of paroxysmal depolarization shift (PDS) as elicited by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an epileptogenic drug.  It also significantly decreased the firing frequency and shifted the firing pattern from bursting in the presence of PTZ to an irregular doublet activity.  Changes in excitability properties were assocd. with a significant increase and decrease in the duration of action potential, and in the amplitude of after-hyperpolarization (AHP), resp.  When tarragon ext. was applied alone, spontaneous activity became irregular and was interrupted by large inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), which disappeared following application of picrotoxin (100 mM).  Tarragon also caused a significant decrease both in the amplitude of action potentials and AHP, and broadened the action potentials.  However, pretreatment with ext. did not prevent the induction of epileptiform activity by PTZ.  Conclusion: The findings suggest that tarragon ext. may affect membrane ion channels and/or GABAA receptors leading to a redn. in neuronal excitability.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída de Chemical Abstracts= Extracted patent of the Database Chemical Abstracts

Herbal compositions containing at least one Urtica species, Artemisia species, and Morus species or its extract for the treatment of diabetes, dyslipidemia and/or conditions associated therewith.      Fogel, Dov.  (Ascarit Ltd., Israel).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2008),     CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2009001362  A2  20081231  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, SV, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, MT, NL, NO, PT, SE, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2008-IL880  20080626.  Priority: IL  2007-184312  20070628; WO  2008-IL880  20080626.  AN 2008:1548571    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

A herbal compn. comprises: at least one Urtica species or an ext. thereof, at least one Artemisia species (belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae) or an ext. thereof, and an ext. of at least one Morus species (Mulberry species, belonging to Moraceae family)).  Said ext. of a Morus species is prepd. of Morus leaves (Morus folium) and comprises Morus latex.  It further comprises at least one species selected from a Cinnamomum species, a Canella species, a Taraxacum species, and/or a Rosa species, one or more species selected from a Humulus species, a Gymnema species, a Trigonella species, a Punica species, a Salix species, and/or an Olea species.  Said Morus species is selected from the group consisting of Morus alba (M. alba, white Mulberry), Morus bombycis, Morus indica, Morus insignis, Morus nigra and Morus Australis, and any combinations thereof.  Said Urtica species is selected from the group consisting of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Urtica urens and Urtica pilulifera, and any combinations thereof.  Said Artemisia species is selected from the group consisting of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian Tarragon, tarragon, Artemisia Dracunculus Herb), Artemisia herba alba (Artemisia alba herb, Artemisia alba herba), Artemisia pallens Wall, Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia judaica, and any combinations thereof.  Said Cinnamomum species is selected from the group consisting of Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon cassia, cinnamon), Cinnamomum zeylanicum; Cinnamomum saigonicum, Cinnamomum aromaticum and Cinnamomum laurus.  Said Canella species is Canella winterana (canella, cinnamon bark, cinnamonbark, pepper cinnamon, wild cinnamon).  Said Taraxacum species is Taraxacum Officinale (dandelion), wherein said Rosa species is Rosa canina.  Said Humulus species is humulus lupulus.  Said Gymnema species is gymnema sylvestre.  Said Trigonella species is trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek).  Said Punica species is punica granatum seed oil.  Said Salix species is salix alba leaves and/or salix alba bark.
 Said Olea species is olea europea leaves.  A process of prepg. an ext. of at least one Morus species, the process comprises: cutting or grinding fresh washed leaves of at least one Morus species; letting said cut or ground fresh Morus leaves stand until latex is exuded therefrom; pressing said leaves to obtain a fresh juice and squeezed leaves; collecting said juice; brewing said juice; chilling and filtering said brewed juice to obtain a liq. ext. of at least one Morus species.  It further comprises the steps of: subsequent to pressing said leaves, collecting said squeezed leaves into sacks, and adding said sacks contg. squeezed leaves to said juice before brewing, concg. said juice before brewing it; drying said liq. ext. to obtain a solid ext. of at least one Morus species, sieving said solid ext., to obtain a powder ext. of at least one Morus species; further comprising mixing thereto at least one Urtica species or an ext. thereof, at least one Artemisia species or an ext. thereof, and at least one species selected from a Cinnamomum species, a Canella species, a Taraxacum species and/or a Rosa species or exts. thereof, and one or more species selected from a Humulus species, a Gymnema species, a Trigonella species, a Punica species, a Salix species, and/or an Olea species or exts. thereof to obtain a compn.  The compn. can be in the form of a tea, a tincture, a concoction, an infusion, a tablet, a capsule, a pill, a bar, a chewable gum, a lotion, a powder or granules, which can be a dietary compn., a pharmaceutical compn. and a food product.  The compn. exhibits high efficiency in lowering the glucose and/or triglyceride levels in the blood, and can be for use in the treatment and/or prevention of diabetes and/or conditions assocd. therewith, dyslipidemia and/or related conditions such as hypertriglyceridemia; wherein said diabetes is type I diabetes, type II diabetes, the type II diabetes assocd.
conditions are selected from atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic polyneuropathies, thyroid disorders, leg ulcers, diabetic foot, liver diseases, kidney function, sight, impotence and constipation.

Nota de alcance (en)

Range. Origin thought to have been Central Asia, probably Siberia. Current range southern Europe, Asia, United States, west to the Mississippi River.

Root: Used as tonic, antiseptic, and antiasthmatic.

Nota bibliográfica

1) Fitoterapia: vademecum de prescripción. 4ª. ed. Barcelona: Masson, 2003,p.234

2) RZEPKA-PLEVNES, et al.  Morphological and genetic variability in some Artemisia species. Acta Horticulturae. 2009, vol.830(Proceedings of the Fourth Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes, 2008, Volume 2), p.687-693.
3) OBOLSKIY, Dmitry, et al.  Artemisia dracunculus L. (Tarragon): A Critical Review of Its Traditional Use, Chemical Composition, Pharmacology, and Safety. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011, vol.59, nº21, p.11367-11384.
4) YAMADA, Masayoshi, et al.  Melanin biosynthesis inhibitors from tarragon Artemisia dracunculus. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 2011, vol.75, nº8, p.1628-1630.
5) FARAJNIA, Sahar, et al.  The eiectrophysiological consequences of Artemisia dracunculus L. (Tarragon) extract on pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepti-form activity in snail neurons. Cell Journal. 2011, vol.12, nº4, p.495-502.

6) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

Artemisia dracunculus L.
Término aceptado: 09-Nov-2011