Arnica montana

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

 
1)
In ten grassland or heathland sites along a geog. (north to south) and climatic gradient in Germany, flowerheads of Arnica montana were collected, and the total content of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) as well as the content of the detected single compds. were detd.  The ratios of helenalin (H)- and corresponding 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin(DH)-type compds. were calcd.  All habitats were characterized concerning the climatic and soil conditions, and the values obtained were correlated with SL contents according to univariate statistical analyses.  All populations showed very similar and const. ratios of helenalin (1)/11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin (2) at around 1,5-2/1 irresp. of different ecol. parameters.  The ratio of helenalin/11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin esters was several fold higher in all samples, but it was nearly identical in every habitat among each other, except for the helenalin/11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin 2-methylbutyrate pair (5/11), which showed a constantly twofold higher H/DH ratio.  However, the 6-O-isovalerylhelenalin content (6) showed highly significant correlations to climatic factors.
 
2) Arnica sp. infusions and tinctures play a great role in the traditional and contemporary medicine.  Seeds of plantation-grown Arnica montana L. (AM) and Arnica chamissonis var. foliosa Less. (AC) are a good source of bioactive compds. such as phenolic acids and flavonoids.  In both studied genera higher levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids were detected in water exts.  Regardless of plant genus, predominant fractions of phenolics were detd. in seeds, comprising chlorogenic, caffeic acid, quercetin and kaempferol.  All samples show high antioxidant activity, however, their levels depend on the extn. procedure and used material.  The free radicals were scavenged most effectively by exts. of AC seeds (30.3%- SASA, 31.3%- DPPH and 39.8%-ABTS, resp.).  It should be noted that lipid peroxidn. was strongly inhibited by both studied tinctures.  It is noteworthy that studied samples show pos. correlations between inhibition of lipid peroxidn. ability and total flavonoids and phenolic acids content (r=0.89 and r=0.83, resp.).  Results obtained from this study show that Arnica seeds ext., either alone or in combination with other active principles, can be used in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
 
3) Several species in the genus Arnica have been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory-related disorders.  Exts. of twelve Arnica species and two species closely related to Arnica (Layia hieracioides and Madia sativa) were investigated for inhibition of human neutrophil elastase release and inhibition of transcription factor NF-kB.  Statistical analyses reveal significant differences in inhibitory capacities between exts.  Sesquiterpene lactones of the helenanolide type, of which some are known inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase release and NF-kB, are present in large amts. in the very active exts. of A. montana and A. chamissonis.  Furthermore, A. longifolia, which has previously not been investigated, shows a high activity similar to that of A. montana and A. chamissonis in both bioassays.  Sesquiterpene lactones of the xanthalongin type are present in large amts. in A. longifolia and other active exts. and would be interesting to evaluate further.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída de Chemical Abstracts= Extracted patent of the Database Chemical Abstracts

Cosmetic formulation to treat rosacea telangiectasia.      Marini, Jan L.  (Jan Marini Skin Research, USA).    U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ.  (2010),     7 pp.  CODEN: USXXCO  US  20100247693  A1  20100930  Patent  written in English.    Application: US  2009-410336  20090324.  Priority: US  2009-410336  20090324.  CAN 153:465394    AN 2010:1225820    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

The present invention features novel cosmetic skin care compns. for improving the appearance of rosacea-affected skin.  Thus, rosacea lotion comprised (in wt%): d.i.water q.s. to 100, vitamin K 1.00, azelaic acid 5.00,, retinol 10S ON 2.00, peptides 100 ppm, transcutol 5.00, butylene glycol 4.00, stearyl alc. 3.00, C12-C15 alkyl benzoate 3.00, capric/caprylic triglyceride 2.00, cetyl alc. 2.00, modified potato starch 2.00, pomegranate ext. (0.05-10%) 1.00, red tea ext. 0.05, resveratrol 5 % 5.00, grape seed ext. 1.00, glycerin 1.00, dimethicone 1.00, propylene glycol, diazolidinyl urea, methylparaben propylparaben 1.00, glycerin, propylene glycol, glyceryl acrylate/acrylic acid copolymer 1.00, glycerin, propylene glycol, Cucumis sativus (cucumber) fruit ext., Arnica montana flower ext., Anacyclus pyrethrum root ext., hydroxyethylcellulose (and) sodium acetate (and) water 0.80, emulsifying wax 0.50, polysorbate 60 0.50, linseed oil, palm oil aminopropanediol esters 0.10, japanese green tea ext. 0.10, DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate 0.10, dipotassium glycyrrhizate 0.01.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Flores, raíces.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Afecciones hepáticas, retención de orina, sudorífico, traumatismos leves, contusiones, hematomas en general.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Para uso interno se usan las hojas y las flores. Un té de hojas a razon de 3 gramos por litro de agua, se usa en caso de afecciones hepáticas, retención de orina y sudorífico. Dosis recomendadas 3 tazas diarias.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: The chem. compn. of essential oils of Arnica montana L. was investigated by GC / MS.  A. montana is a rare and protected plant, so herb material for anal. was obtained from plants cultivated from seeds of collected in natural habitats of Lithuania.  Fifty-six compds. (two of them tentatively identified) comprised 70% of the total oil content.  Most of the constituents were found in minor quantities (up to 1%), while two major compds. were geranyl linalool (14.7%) and an unknown compd. (13.8%).  Aliph. hydrocarbons and their derivs. comprised 11.3%, while farnesene derivs. up to 9% of the total oil.  Lithuanian arnica volatile oil compn. differed from that of oils of the plants from other countries.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Argentina.

---------------

Origen y distribución: único ejemplar europeo de un género Norte de americano que
cuenta unas treinta especie, el árnica es endémica en Europa: de la Península ibérica a
Escandinavia y Cárpatos. Está ausente en las Islas británicas y es relativamente rara en
Italia. Crece en terrenos pobres (pasturas, páramos y turberas altas) y silíceas
(substrato ácido), en zonas montanas de 500 a2500 m.s.n.m.; ausente en la llanura, es
una planta protegida.

Partes utilizadas: flores (hojas).

Propiedad: antiinflamatoria, analgésica, antibiótica, anti neurálgico, antiequimotica.

----------------

Efectos: analgésico, anti-inflamatorio.

Precauciones: planta tóxica por vía oral (no debe tragarse), sólo para uso externo y en concentraciones diluidas. No usar en heridas abiertas. Puede producir reacciones alérgicas.

Nota bibliográfica

1) CONSELL, Danilo M. Enciclopedia de plantas que curan. Buenos Aires: Ediliba, 1987. 2 volúmenes.

2) JUDZENTIENE, Asta; BUDIENE, Jurga. Analysis of the chemical composition of flower essential oils from Arnica montana of Lithuanian origin. Chemija. 2009, Vol.20, nº3, p.190-194.

3) SEEMANN, Andreas, et al. Variation of sesquiterpene lactone contents in different Arnica montana populations: Influence of ecological parameters. Planta Medica. 2010, Vol.76, nº8, p.837-842.

4) GAWLIK-DZIKI, Urszula, et al. Seeds of Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis as a potential source of natural antioxidants. Herba Polonica. 2009, Vol.55, nº1, p.60-71.

5) EKENAES, Catarina, et al.Screening for anti-inflammatory activity of 12 Arnica (Asteraceae) species assessed by inhibition of NF-k B and release of human neutrophil elastase. Planta Medica. 2008, Vol.74, nº15, p.1789-1794.

6) El uso popular de las plantas medicinales en Uruguay/Grosso, Lilia. - Icei, 2010. -- p. 88 

7) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

Arnica montana
Término aceptado: 24-Nov-2011