Artemisia vulgaris

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PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas, tallos tiernos.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Tónica estomacal, estimulante, anti espasmódica, emenagoga, colitis, vómitos nerviosos, histerismo.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Para estos casos se recomienda un té, preparados con hojas y tallos tiernos a razón de 20 gramos en un litro de agua hirviendo, que se puede endular con miel o azúcar quemada. La dosis recomendada es de 3 o 4 tazas diarias.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
The aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris and A. absinthium (Asteraceae) were hydrodistd. to produce the oils in the yields of 0.5 % (v/w) and 0.8 % (v/w) resp.  The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS.  Thirty five and Thirty one components were identified representing 87.1 % and 90.8 % of the oils, resp.  The main compds. of A. vulgaris were beta-thujene (36.0 %), alpha-thujene (13.6 %), chrysanthenon (5.6 %), piperitone oxide (4.1 %) and caryophyllene oxide (3.1 %) whereas chamazulene (28.6 %) (-) spathulenol (7.4 %), 1-phellandrene (6.1 %), beta-calacorene (5.6 %), sabinene (5.5 %), cis-epoxyocimene (4.5 %) and 1H-indene (3.9 %) were the major constituents of A. absinthium.  The results discussed with the genus patterns.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:

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DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The aim of this study was to det. the morphol. and genetic variability of five species of Artemisia: southernwood (A. abrotanum L.), tarragon (A. dracunculus L.), mugwort (A. absinthium L.), roman wormwood (A. pontica L.), and common wormwood (A. vulgaris L.) from the Collection of Medical Plants of the Vegetable Department of the University of Agricultural in Szczecin.  Morphol. variation among the Artemisia plants was detd. using biometric measurements, which included the growth dynamics, the height of the plants, the width of a leaf pair, the length and width of a leaf blade.  ISSR amplification was used to analyze polymorphisms of microsatellite sequences in the Artemisia genome and to evaluate genetic diversity among them.  Forty microsatellite primers were used in ISSR reactions.  Clear products were generated in reactions with fifteen of them.  In general, 120 loci were amplified (eight of the av.); five of them 71 turned out to be polymorphic, and 49 specific for the examd. species.  The longest ISSR products (.apprx.3000 bp) was amplified with the 854 primer and the shortest (.apprx.220 bp) with the 810 primer.  Anal. of the phylogenetic similarity dendrogram has shown wide range of diversity between studied species, which was from 3,6% to 56,7%.  The biggest genetic similarity (56,7%) characterized A. absinthium L. and A. dracunculus L. species.  Phylogenetic similarity A. pontica L. and A. abrotanum L. come to 15%, whereas A. vulgaris L. and A. dracunculus L. come to 49,6%.

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

Ethnopharmacol. research investigates the plants and other medicinal and toxic substances utilized by different traditional populations.  One approach in this field is a literature search of the available publications on medicinal plants.  The purpose of the current study was to select plants with psychoactive effects described in a Brazilian literary work written by Pio Correa in 1926.  Those mentioned plants were classified in accordance with their indications for use as stimulants and depressors of the central nervous system.  For the phytochem. study herein, we researched these species via a database search, and all the obtained information was compiled into a new database to analyze possible correlations between the chem. compds. and the psychoactive categories.  Of the 813 plants searched in the literary work, 104 presented chem. data in the scientific periodicals consulted.  Seventy-five of them belong to the stimulant category, while 31 are depressors and two of them belong to both categories.  Phenols and flavonoids were the main compds. obsd. in plants of both categories, though at different frequencies.  Monoterpenes (29.9%) and sesquiterpenes (28.6%) were also obsd. in plants from the stimulant category, while 25.8% of plants from the depressor category were comprised of carotenoids and 22.6% of steroids.  The main specific compds. were identified as ferulic acid, alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-humulene and kaempferol among the stimulant plants.  Otherwise, in depressor plants were characterized caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-carotene, physalins and withanolides as specific compds.  The assocn. between ethnopharmacol. and chemotaxonomic data, as presented in this study, could support plant selection in further investigations by research groups whose studies focus on psychoactive plants as potential therapeutics.
2) Aphids represent the most destructive of chrysanthemum pests to cultivation.  Reliable variety sources of resistance and control methods are limited, so development of highly resistant breeding lines is desirable.  An intergeneric hybrid between Dendranthema morifolium (chrysanthemum) variety  'Zhongshanjingui' and Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort)  'Variegata' was attempted.  Most of the hybrid embryos aborted at an early developmental stage.  Embryo rescue allowed the generation of hybrid plants, whose hybridity was confirmed by a combination of morphol., cytol. and GISH anal.  The hybrids were vigorous, flowered normally, and their flower and leaf shape resembled those of the chrysanthemum more than those of the mugwort parent.  The hybrids showed much higher resistance to chrysanthemum aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanbourni) than maternal chrysanthemum by inoculation test.  The leaves of the hybrid developed a higher d. of trichomes and secretory glands compared to the maternal chrysanthemum.  GC-MS anal. revealed that .apprx.51% of the essential oil in the hybrid leaves were monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, while the proportion in the chrysanthemum was .apprx.37%, and in the mugwort was .apprx.90%.  It is inferred that higher aphid resistance in the hybrid mainly owed to the leaf micromorphol. and bioactive essential oil content.

3) Recent investigations have shown that the antioxidant properties of plants could be correlated with oxidative stress defense and different human diseases.  In this respect flavonoids and other polyphenolic compds. have gained the greatest attention.  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aq. ext. of Artemisia vulgaris.  The plant ext. was tested for DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power assays, total phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content.  Detn. of serum ascorbic acid level, blood glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats treated with 100 mg/Kg of Artemisia vulgaris ext.  The ext. exhibited scavenging potential with IC50 value of 11.4 mg/mL for DPPH, the value were found to close to those of std. rutin (10 mg/mL).  On the other hand Artemisia vulgaris ext. exhibited nitric oxide scavenging activity with IC50 value 125 mg/mL.  The reducing power of the ext. depends on the amt. of ext.  The content of phenolic compds. (mg/g) in aq. ext. was found 19 ± 0.16 mg/g plant ext. and expressed in gallic acid equiv. (GAE).  The flavonoidal and flavonol contents were found to be 7.96 ± 0.76 and 3.4 ± 0.0 resp. mg/g plant ext. in rutin equiv.  The treatment of rats with aq. ext. of Artemisia vulgaris resulted in a significant increase in blood glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity and serum ascorbic acid level as compared to their corresponding controls.  The results obtained in the present study indicate that aq. ext. of Artemisia vulgaris is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Extracted patent of the Database Chemical Abstracts

A herbal composition for the treatment of hiv/aids infection.      Haswani, Mukesh Gyanchand.  (Avinash Herbal Pvt. Ltd., India).    Indian Pat. Appl.  (2010),     CODEN: INXXBQ  IN  2009MU01848  A  20100730  Patent  written in English.    Application: IN  2009-MU1848  20090811.  Priority: IN  2009-MU1848  20090811.  AN 2010:983908    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

A synergistic therapeutic herbal composition comprising a combination of herbal compositions comprising three herbal compositions for use in infectious diseases and related disorders in mammals wherein herbal composition one comprising whole plant of Davana (Artemisia vulgaris), stem bark of Shigru (Moringa oleifera), whole plant Dhamasa (Fagonia cretica), whole plant Katuka (Picrorrhiza kurraa), fruit of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), stem bark of Nimba (Azadirachta indica), stem of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), root of Punarnava (Boerhaavia verticillata), whole plant of Brahata (Solatium indicum), root of Trivart (Operculina turpethum) and root of Kaduchirayata (Swertia chirata); herbal composition two comprising whole piant of Atibala (Abutilon indicum), root of Talmuli (Curculigo orchioides), fruit of Gokharu (Tribulus terrestris), dry fruit of Amalki (Emblica officinalis) and leaf of Shigru (Moringa oleifera); and herbal composition three comprising fruit of Shiitake (Lentimda edodus) and fruit of Ostreatus (Pleuroius ostretus).  Said herbal composition is prophylactic, antimicrobial and antiviral, hepatoprotective, blood purifier and tonic reduces virus load improving immunity, CD4 count providing relief from HIV infection and/or AIDS and related disorders.

Nota de alcance (en)

Uses: somach, kidney.                                                 

Origin: Afgahnistan, Brazil, Canada, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Greenland, Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Mexico, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, Thailand, USA.                 

Nota bibliográfica

1) CONSELL, Danilo M. Enciclopedia de plantas que curan. Buenos Aires: Ediliba, 1987. 2 volúmenes.

2) BAGCI, E.; KURSAT, M.; CIVELEK, S. Essential oil composition of the aerial parts of two Artemisia species (A. vulgaris and A. absinthium) from east Anatolian region. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants. 2010, Vol.13, nº1, p.66-72.
3) RZEPKA-PLEVNES, D, et al..  Morphological and genetic variability in some Artemisia species.  Acta Horticulturae. 2009, Vol.830(Proceedings of the Fourth Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes, 2008, Volume 2), p.687-693.
4) OTSUKA, Rafaela Denise, et al.  Psychoactive plants described in a Brazilian literary work and their chemical compounds. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2010, Vol.10, nº3, p.218-237.
5) DENG, Yanming, et al. Production and characterisation of the intergeneric hybrids between Dendranthema morifolium and Artemisia vulgaris exhibiting enhanced resistance to chrysanthemum aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanbourni). Planta. 2010, Vol.231, nº3, p.693-703.
6) TEMRAZ, Abeer; EL-TANTAWY, Walid H.  Characterization of antioxidant activity of extract from Artemisia vulgaris. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008, Vol.21, nº4, p.321-326.

7) Geraldini , Isanete, Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 173, 2015 . -- p. 383-423

8) Khare, C.P./ Indian Medicinal Plants. -- Nueva Dheli: Springer, 2007 . - p. 836.

Artemisia vulgaris
Término aceptado: 24-Nov-2011