Coffea arabica

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:
 
Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and detg. genetic relationships.  A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties.  These were composed of nineteen com. important Brazilians and six interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffea liberica.  The set used comprised 52 newly developed SSR markers derived from microsatellite enriched libraries, 56 designed on the basis of coffee SSR sequences available from public databases, 6 already published, and 13 universal chloroplast microsatellite markers.  Only 22 were polymorphic, these detecting 2-7 alleles per marker, an av. of 2.5.  Based on the banding patterns generated by polymorphic SSR loci, the set of twenty-five coffee varieties were clustered into two main groups, one composed of only Brazilian varieties, and the other of interspecific hybrids, with a few Brazilians.  Color mutants could not be sepd.  Clustering was in accordance with material genealogy thereby revealing high similarity. (2)

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1)
Coffee (Coffea spp.) alkaloids (caffeine and related methylxanthines) and phenolics (caffeic and chlorogenic acids) have recognized pestistatic/pesticidal activity and mediate insect-plant interactions.  The present investigation assessed the resistance of 12 coffee genotypes to the leaf miner Leucoptera (=Perileucoptera) coffeella (Guerin-Meneville & Perrottet) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) and correlated such results with the leaf content of coffee alkaloids and phenolics that probably play a role in the interaction between coffee and this leaf miner.  The levels of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, caffeine, and related methylxanthines were measured and quantified in leaf exts. of these genotypes before and 7 d after their infestation by the leaf miner.  Some coffee genotypes (Coffea canephora L. and Coffea racemosa Lour. and its hybrids with Coffea arabica L.) exhibited high pesticidal activity (100% mortality) toward the L. coffeella, indicating their antibiosis resistance.  However, there was no correlation between this activity and the leaf levels of coffee alkaloids and phenolics.  Curiously, infestation by L. coffeella leads to a nearly four-fold decline in the leaf levels of chlorogenic acid, which does not affect this pest species but may affect other generalist species.  Indeed, chlorogenic acid sprayed on coffee leaves stimulated locomotory activity of the green scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), thus minimizing their feeding in contrast with the absence of this polyphenol.  Therefore, redn. of chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves due to leaf miner infestation seems to also favor infestation by generalist insects, such as the green scale.

Nota de alcance (en)

Ethnobotanical and general use

Nutritional use
Coffee is used by at least one third of the world population as a beverage and is one of the most important commercial crops of the tropics . Ninety percent of the coffee used in commerce is derived from Coffea arabica. The flavour of coffee is due to the presence of the essential oil caffeol, the stimulating effect is ascribed to the alkaloid caffeine. Fatty oil is mainly stored in the endosperm. There is very little true tannin in Coffee. Besides being used as a beverage, coffee is also used to flavour icecream, candies and pastries as well as liqueurs.

Economical utilization
The shrub or treelet is also appreciated as an ornamental. The wood is little used, as the stem does not reach an adequate size.

Medical use
Caffeine is a stimulant, a nervine and diuretic. It acts on the central nervous system, kidneys, heart and muscles. The methylxanthines caffeine, theobromine and theophylline have psychoanaleptical and diuretic effects. Caffeine is present in quite a few medicines. Coffee is said to be an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. People can become addicted to it, it can increase the cholesterol content in the blood and affect the mucosa of the stomach - but nevertheless it is much appreciated, since it seems to meet the following description: Negro como el diablo, caliente como el infierno, y dulce como un angelo (Black like the devil, hot like the hell, and sweet as an angel).

Fruit, leaf: stomach pain, leaves applied directly to forehead for headache

-------------

Seed: Infusion of green seeds ("beans") contains caffeine and is drunk in French Guiana for remedying migraine headaches. Infusion contains tannin, which is useful as a febrifuge; for gout.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Fruto.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: cardiotónico, digestivo, ligeramente euforizante, neutraliza parcialmente el sueño, ayuda a desintoxicar a las personas que se han excedido en el consumo de alcohol, alivia temporalmente el hambre y la fatiga.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
Infusión.
 
ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Argentina.

----------

Estimulante: Fruto

Nota bibliográfica

1) CONSELL, Danilo M. Enciclopedia de plantas que curan. Buenos Aires: Ediliba, 1987. 2 volúmenes.
2) VIEIRA, Elisa S. N, et al. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian Coffea arabia varieties. Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2010, Vol.33, nº3, p.507-514.
 
3) MAGALHAES, S. T. V, et al. Leaf alkaloids, phenolics, and coffee resistance to the leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 2010, Vol.103, nº4, p.1438-1443.

4) South American medicinal plants : botany, remedial properties, and general use / I. Roth, H. Lindorf. Berlin ; New York : Springer, c2002. -- p. 492.

5) Barret, Bruce Economic Botany vol. 48, nro. 1 .-- p. 8-20 1994

6) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

7) Escalona Cruz, José Luis; et al/ Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales vol. 20, no 4. 2015. p -- 429 - 439

Coffea arabica
Término aceptado: 25-Nov-2011