Eugenia caryophyllata

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Clavo de olor.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Digestivas , Carminativas , Antisépticas , Analgésicas.

EFECTOS ADVERSOS Y/O TOXICOLOGÍA= Adverse effects and toxicology:
The essential oil (EC-oil) obtained from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) was examd. for its free radical-scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and in vivo toxicity.  To find the xenobiotic properties of EC-oil, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were measured.  It was found that EC-oil displayed xenobiotic properties like bromobenzene.  The cytotoxicities of eugenol and of the EC-oil were greatly attenuated by the sulfhydryl-contg. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting that eugenol was susceptible to nucleophilic sulfhydryl.  In addn., eugenol also showed potent free radical-scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.  Moreover, methyleugenol considerably exhibited less cytotoxicity and less potent free radical-scavenging activity than eugenol, and the cell viability of the methyleugenol was more increased with NAC treatment than the eugenol.  These results indicate that the phenolic OH in eugenol may play a crucial role in both cytotoxicity and free radical-scavenging activity.  The fashion on oxidative stress and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities of eugenol resembled those of bromobenzene.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
Una infusión de 2 gramos de clavo en un litro de agua es un estimulante estomacal y digestivo. Se toma una copita antes de cada comida.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
A review.  The essential oil extd. from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavoring industries.  The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.  The biol. activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses.  In addn. to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anesthetic properties.  This short review addresses the chem. compn. and biol. effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS anal. and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large no. of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Argentina.

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. is an herbal medicine and eugenol is one of its main components.  Eugenol (4-allyl-2 methoxyphenol) has been known to control cholesterol and triglycerides level, reducing the activity of cancer cell and enhancing immunity in the human body.  Eugenol can also be found in the vegetable oil, such as soya been oil, peanut oil and so on.  This paper presents the method by using high performance liq. chromatog. (HPLC) with extg. method in the E. caryophyllata Thunb. and Syringa vulgaris L. and using a time-dependent cell culture with eugenol (50 mM) from E. caryophyllata Thunb.  It also shows the eugenol data of several kinds of vegetable by using such method and examines the anti-proliferation effect of eugenol isolated from the herb of E. caryophyllata Thunb. on cervical cancer cell lines.  This result was tested repeatedly.  The anal. parameter was received and can be used to analyze the content of the eugenol in other vegetable's oil.  We found that eugenol can suppress the growth of cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa).

2) The oil compn. of five arom. plants with com. importance in Tunisia were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.  Mentha longifolia L. and Mentha pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzgium aromaticum L.) and Thymus vulgaris L. exhibited high levels of antimicrobial activity against thirteen Vibrio alginolyticus strains (100% for thyme and clove oil and 92.3% for the other oils).  These oils reduced the DPPH× radical more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant (tert-butylated hydroxytoluene: BHT IC50 = 11.5 mg mL-1).  The results show that these plants, esp. rosemary, thyme and clove, can be practical in cooking to protect against contamination by marine V. alginolyticus.

3) AIM: To investigate the chem. constituents in the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb..  METHODS: Compds. were isolated through repeated column chromatog.  RESULTS: A phenolic glucoside gallate was isolated and identified as Me 2-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-b-D-glucopyranosylbenzoate (1) by HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses.  CONCLUSION: Compd. 1 is a new phenolic glucoside gallate.

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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts

Pharmaceutical composition for treating abnormal conditions of bones and a process for making it.      Namadeo, Karande Tulashidas; Bandu, Karande Rayachand.  (India).    Indian Pat. Appl.  (2007),     CODEN: INXXBQ  IN  2006MU00140  A  20070810  Patent  written in English.    Application: IN  2006-MU140  20060130.  Priority: IN  2006-MU140  20060130.  AN 2007:919997    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of fractures and other disorders of bones comprises a homogenous composition consisting of (1) powdered dried bulbs of Allium Sativum (Lasuna, Garlic) (2) powdered dried flower buds of Eugenia Caryophyllata (Lavangam, Clove) (3) powdered stem/bark of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Tvak, Cinnamon) (4) powdered fruits of Piper nigrum Linn (Marican, Black pepper) and (5) powdered sun dried leaves of Premna mucronata Roxb (Agnimantha) (6) powdered goat milk.

Nota de alcance (en)

Ethnobotanical and general use

Nutritional use
The interior ovary of the unopened flower bud with its 4 calyx lobes is about 1 em long and 3 mm in diameter. It is the source of the spice and the ethereal oil. It contains up to 23 o/o of ethereal oil, fatty oils and tannins. 90% of the ethereeal oil is eugenol; further contents are vanillin, sesquiterpenes, a and beta caryophyllene. The dried flower buds are either used whole or are ground and pulverized as a spice in bakery, in the manufacture of chocolate, sausages, sauces, ketchup, candies, and for flavouring of sweet and savoury dishes, pickles or liqueur.

Economical utilization
Oil of cloves is not only used in the fabrication of perfumes, cosmetics and soap, but also as a flavouring of cigarettes. It is technically applied in painting on china. In histological work it is used as a clearing agent.

Medical use
Medically, the oil is appreciated as a stimulant, aromatic, antiseptic (in dentistry), carminative, stomachic and as a remedy against toothache. It is furthermore applied for flavouring and as a taste corrective. Stems, leaves, flowers and fruits contain the oil. Buds, leaves, and stalks of inflorescences are used as drugs. The extracted oil of the leaves is cheaper and is mainly used for extraction of vanillin.

Nota bibliográfica

1) CONSELL, Danilo M. Enciclopedia de plantas que curan. Buenos Aires: Ediliba, 1987. 2 volúmenes. p. 64.

2) CHAIEB, Kamel, et al. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytotherapy Research. 2007, vol.21, nº6, p.501-506.
3) PARK, Hee-Juhn. Toxicological studies on the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata buds. Natural Product Sciences. 2006, vol.12, nº2, p.94-100.
4) CHANG, Wei-Chun. The analysis of eugenol from the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata by HPLC and against the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011, vol.5, nº7, p.1121-1127.
5) HAJLAOUI, H., et al. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils of five Tunisian aromatic plants. Italian Journal of Food Science. 2010, vol.22, nº3, p.320-329.
6) DAN, Chun, et al. A new phenolic glucoside gallate from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllate. Zhongguo Tianran Yaowu. 2010, vol.8, nº3, p.180-182.

7) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 397.

8) South American medicinal plants : botany, remedial properties, and general use / I. Roth, H. Lindorf. Berlin ; New York : Springer, c2002. -- p. 492.

Eugenia caryophyllata
Término aceptado: 30-Nov-2011