Piper cubeba

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Frutos.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Béquico, diurético.
POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
Jarabe de Cubeba, frutos desecados de cubeba 15gr, miel 250gr, se reducen los granos de Cubeba a polvo y se amasa con la miel hasta formar una pasta homogénea. Si es necesario, se ablanda la miel a baño maría. Se guarda en un recipiente adecuado y se toman dos o tres cuchaadas diarias.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
The hydrodistd. Piper cubeba (tailed pepper) essential oil and various oleoresins individually collected by soxhlet app. using methanol, ethanol, petroleum benzene, di-Et ether and chloroform as solvents were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.  The essential oil and oleoresins were analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques.  The main component of the essential oil was b-cubebene (18.94 %) followed by cubebol (13.32 %), sabinene (9.60 %), a-copaene (7.41%) and b-caryophyllene (5.28%) with many other components in minor amts.  All the oleoresins showed the presence of 85 components.  The major component in all the oleoresins was cubebol (stereoisomer).  The percentage of cubebol in the di-Et ether ext. was 32.38, in the ethanol ext. 25.51, in the petroleum benzene ext. 42.89, in the chloroform ext. 28.00 and in methanol ext. 19.03.  The essential oil and oleoresins were tested using different in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.  The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and oleoresins was tested in mustard oil and the antimicrobial results were compared to com. antifungal and antibacterial agents.  Moderate to strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were demonstrated in the studied assays.  The essential oil and oleoresins may be used as substitutes for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial agents after appropriate clin. trials.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:

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ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

The antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of hydrodistd. essential oil and oleoresin (obtained using acetone as a solvent) of tailed pepper were carried out by different techniques.  The results obtained from antioxidant activity measurements of essential oil and oleoresin against mustard oil were measured for duration of 28 days in terms of peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, total carbonyl and p-anisidine values.  The results obtained from butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was similar to both the oleoresin and essential oil.  In addn., the inhibitory action in linoleic acid system was studied by monitoring accumulation of peroxide concn.  The radical scavenging capacity of both essential oil and oleoresin on 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were (71.2%) and (69.77%) resp. at 25 mL/mL.  It was relatively lower in comparison with synthetic antioxidants (BHA-96.41%; BHT-95.91%).  The results obtained from reducing power, chelating effect and hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was also supported the antioxidant of essential oil and oleoresin.  The tailed pepper essential oil and oleoresin showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against Penicillium viridicatum at 3000 and 2000 ppm resp. in the poison food method.  It is interesting to note that the essential oil revealed 100% clear zone inhibition against Aspergillus flavus at all tested concns.  The chem. characterization of tailed pepper essential oil by GC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of 44 components accounting for 97.8% of the oil.

2) This present study aims to investigate if P9605, an ethanolic ext. of Piper cubeba L, exhibits anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties.  We found that P9605 significantly inhibited growth induced by b-estradiol in MCF-7, a human breast cancer cell line.  It inhibited aromatase activity, which is responsible for transforming androgens into estrogens.  Competitive binding assays also indicated P9605 binding to both human recombinant estrogen a and b receptors.  Furthermore, this ext. inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and also attenuated the induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in differentiated THP-1 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).  Taken together with our previous results, P9605 possesses antiandrogenic, antiestrogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties.  These results support the potential use of P9605 in phytotherapy against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

3) Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer (PC) in the Western world, there is a dearth of effective medication.  Since the androgen-signaling pathway is very much involved in PC growth and development, we investigated the potential of Piper cubeba L. ext., P9605, in targeting multiple events simultaneously within this pathway.  This may be more effective compared to an antiandrogen monotherapy.  These results indicated that P9605 inhibited proliferation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis.  This antigrowth effect was less pronounced in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines.  P9605 potently inhibited 5a-reductase II activity, which is responsible for converting testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the prostate.  It also acted as an antagonist at recombinant wild-type androgen receptors (AR).  P9605 suppressed cell growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion stimulated by physiol. concns. of DHT in LNCaP cells.  Interestingly, it down-regulated AR levels.  In conclusion,these findings suggest that P9605 may potentially retard the growth of androgen-dependent PC via several mechanisms.

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Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts

Isolation of lignans from Zanthoxylum naranjillo and Piper cubeba, preparation of synthetic derivatives and testing of their anti-Chagas' chemoprophylactic and therapeutical activities. Silva, Marcio Luis Andrade; Albuquerque, Sergio; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Silva, Rosangela.  (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2003),     24 pp.  CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2003080600  A1  20031002  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2003-BR45  20030325.  Priority: BR  2002-1237  20020325; WO  2003-BR45  20030325; US  2004-508875  20040923; JP  2003-578354  20030325.  CAN 139:292102    AN 2003:777783    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

The present invention discloses a process to isolate cubebin I (R1= H) and methylpluviatolide II (R1, R2 = Me; R3 = H) from leaves of Zanthoxylum naranjillo or Piper cubeba.  Semi-synthetic derivs., such as I [R1 = Ac, Me, (CH2)2NMe2, a-D-glucofuranose], and II [R1R2 = CH2; R3 = H, NO2, SO3H, F, Cl, NH2, NHCOMe], were prepd. and their anti-Chagas' chemoprophylactic and therapeutical activities were also evaluated.  The prepd. derivs. were used to manuf. drugs to provide activity at least five tomes higher than obsd. for gentian violet and other compds. used for blood treatment and Chagas' disease prophylaxis. 

Nota de alcance (en)

Range. Tropical Asia. Grows naturally in Myanmar; thrives in wet and humid areas.

Whole plant: Sharp, hot, bitter, and easily digestible, the flowers, fruits, roots, stems, and whole plant are employed in preparations to aid digestion, kill germs, and control the phlegm and gas.

Stem: A steamed mixture of the stems, rice dough, and a little salt is eaten to purify blood, promote vitality, ease aches and pains, and allevi­ate male- and female-related disorders. The same preparation is considered particu­larly suitable for people convalescing from malaria.

Flower: Used in medicines to treat coughs and asthma.

Fruit: Used to alleviate stomach distension, coughs, and colds; also in digestives and tonics.

Root: Used to neutralize poisons; also to treat coughs, bronchi­tis, asthma, hemorrhoids, and gas disorders in the stomach.



Native to Indonesia; cultivated in Assam and Karnataka.


Fruit—Carminative, diuretic, expectorant. Used for coughs, bronchitis, asthma, urinary tract infections, amoebic dysentery. Stimulates genitourinary mucous surfaces.

Oil—antibacterial, used in genitourinary diseases and cystitis.

Nota bibliográfica

1) CONSELL, Danilo M. Enciclopedia de plantas que curan. Buenos Aires: Ediliba, 1987. 2 volúmenes. p.

2) SINGH, G., et al. Chemistry, biocidal and antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins from Piper cubeba (seed). International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics. , vol., nº, p..
  (2008),  2(2),  50-59.      

3) SINGH, Gurdip. et al. Chemical constituents, antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and oleoresin of tailed pepper (Piper cubeba L). International Journal of Food Engineering. 2007, vol.3, nº6, p..
4) YAM, Jianying; KREUTER, Matthias; DREWE, Juergen.  Piper cubeba targets multiple aspects of the androgen-signalling pathway. A potential phytotherapy against prostate cancer growth? Planta Medica. 2008, vol.74, nº1, p.33-38.

5) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

6) Khare, C.P./ Indian Medicinal Plants. -- Nueva Dheli: Springer, 2007 . - p  492.

Piper cubeba
Término aceptado: 01-Dic-2011