Anthemis arvensis L

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Flores. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antiespasmódico, estomacal, sudorífico, tónico, antiséptico, antiinflamatorio, tónico suave. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Two known sesquiterpene lactones, antheindurolides A and B, together with five new related lactones with the same unusual skeleton were isolated from the aerial parts of Anthemis arvensis growing in Serbia. The originally proposed structure of antheindurolide B was revised. This (antheindurolide) type of lactones, detected so far only in the genus Anthemis (Anthemis indurata, Anthemis pseudocotula and Anthemis cotula) could be of chemotaxonomic significance. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The Gonosperminae (Asteraceae) are composed of three genera endemic to the Canary Islands (Gonospermum Less., and Lugoa DC.) and southern Africa (Inulanthera Kallersjo), and they are considered an example of a floristic link between these two regions.  Phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequences reveal that the Canarian genera are not sister to Inulanthera and do not support the monophyly of the Gonosperminae.  These results, coupled with previous phylogenetic studies of other groups, suggest that many of the putative biogeog. links between Macaronesia and southeast Africa need to be evaluated by rigorous phylogenetic analyses.  Inulanthera forms part of the basal southern African radiation of the Anthemideae, and therefore it is closely related to other taxa from this region.  Maximum likelihood and weighted parsimony analyses support a monophyletic group in the Canary Islands, that includes Lugoa, Gonospermum, and three Tanacetum species endemic to the island of Gran Canaria.  Bootstrap support for the monophyly of this Canarian group is weak, and it collapses in the strict consensus tree based on unweighted parsimony.  Lugoa is nested within Gonospermum, and both interisland colonization among the western islands of La Gomera, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, and radiation on the central island of Gran Canaria have been the major patterns of species diversification for these Canarian endemics. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) The essential oils from the aerial parts of Anthemis ruthenica and Anthemis arvensis, wild-growing in Serbia, obtained by hydrodistn. were analyzed using GC and GC/MS.  A total of 75 and 81 components were identified in A. ruthenica and A. arvensis, resp.  The major constituents of A. ruthenica oil were beta-pinene (3.6%), 1,8-cineol (6.8%), 4-terpineol (6.2%), alpha-terpineol (3.6%), isophyllocladene (5.4%) and palmitic acid (9.9%).  The oil of A. arvensis showed a high content of non-terpenic compds.  The main components were palmitic acid (21.2%) and linoleic acid (6.5%).  The most abundant terpenic compds. in the oil of A. arvensis were pinocarvone (5.4%) and isospathulenol (4.6%).

2) The degree of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) pollution and their bioavailability in mining-affected grassland soils were detd.  Antimony and As concns. in aboveground parts of plants, collected in three consecutive years, were measured to investigate their uptake capacity, food chain contamination, and ecol. risks.  Total Sb and As contents in soils ranged from 60 to 230 mg/kg and from 42 to 4530 mg/kg, resp., indicating a high degree of pollution of soils.  The mobile fractions of Sb (0.02-0.27% of the total Sb content) and As (0.02-0.70% of the total As content) in soils, which reflect the plant-available portion, are extremely low compared to total Sb and As contents in soils.  The Sb and As contents in plants were also very low in both study areas.  This lower accumulation of Sb and As in the plants is attributed to the low bioavailability of Sb and As in mine soils.  Antimony and As contents in some plants were lower than the controls, and the concns. in some plants were slightly higher than the normal grass mean level but were less than the phytotoxic or toxic levels for human or livestock consumption.  The results of this study demonstrate that the plants growing in these mining areas, which have evolved As and Sb tolerance and detoxification capacity, can be cultivated to phytostabilize the metalloid-contaminated mining sites.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1980, p.84-85.

2) IVAN VUCKOVIC, Ljubodrag, et al.  Sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Anthemis arvensis L. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . 2006, vol.34, nº4, p.303-309.
3) FRANCISCO-ORTEGA, Javier, et al. Origin and evolution of the endemic genera of Gonosperminae (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) from the Canary Islands: evidence from nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany . 2001, vol.88, nº1, p.161-169.
4) VUJISIC, Lj., et al. Comparative examination of the essential oils of Anthemis ruthenica and A. arvensis wild-growing in Serbia. Flavour and Fragrance Journal . 2006, vol.21, nº3, p.458-461.
5) CASADO, M., et al. Antimony and Arsenic Uptake by Plants in an Abandoned Mining Area.  Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis . 2007, vol.38, nº9-10, p.1255-1275.

Anthemis arvensis L
Término aceptado: 29-Ago-2007