Helianthus annuus L

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Semillas. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antifebrífugo y antineurálgico. 

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Aceite: contiene ácidos pleico, linoleico, palmítico, esteárico, aráquico; lecitina, ácidos fenólicos, clorogénico, cafeico; carotenoides. Insaponificable: abundantes esteroles (beta-sitosterol), 60%; delta7-estigmasterol, 7-14%; delta5avenasterol, 46%), tocoferoles; alfa-tocoferol. Pétalos: fitosterina, betaína, quercetina, colina, pigmentos antociánicos, faradiol, amidiol, fósforo, calcio. 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Uruguay. 

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

The sunflower genus, Helianthus, is recognized widely for the cultivated sunflower H. animus and scientifically as a model organism for studying diploid and polyploid hybrid speciation, introgression, and genetic architecture. A resolved phylogeny for the genus is essential for the advancement of these scientific areas. In the past, phylogenetic relationships of the perennial species and polyploid hybrids have been particularly difficult to resolve. Using the external transcribed spacer region of the nuclear 18S-26S rDNA region, we reveal for the first time a highly resolved gene tree for Helianthus. Phylogenetic anal. allowed the detn. of a monophyletic annual H. sect. Helianthus, a two-lineage polyphyletic H. sect. Ciliares, and the monotypic H. sect. Agrestis, all of which were nested within a large perennial and polyphyletic H. sect. Divaricati. The distribution of perennial polyploids and known annual diploid hybrids on this phylogeny suggested multiple independent hybrid speciation events that gave rise to at least four polyploids and three diploid hybrids. Also provided by this phylogeny was evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation outside H. sect. Helianthus. Finally, previous hypotheses about the secondary chem. in the genus were tested in a phylogenetic framework to obtain a better understanding of the evolution of these compds. in Helianthus. 

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Contamination of soils by effluents from industries is on the increase.  There is the possibility of remediating these contaminated soils through the use of certain plants.  This work investigated the remediating ability of Helianthus annuus and Tithonia diversifolia on the soil polluted with effluents from a paint industry in Ibadan, Nigeria.  The expt. consisted of three treatments (H. annuus, T. diversifolia, and control) each replicated three times in a factorial combination of four different fertility managements, viz mineral fertilizer (MF); Grade A organomineral fertilizer (OMF); control1, plants without fertilizer application; and control2, where no fertilizer and no crop was planted using randomized complete block design.  A total of 12 plots of 2 ´ 4 m2 each per phytoplant were obtained.  Each plot was planted with the viable seeds of the phytoplant at a spacing of 60 ´ 30 cm2 and at the seed rate of four seeds per hole.  The seedlings were thinned to two stands per hole 2 wk after planting (WAP) and also weeded two times (2 and 5 WAP).  After in situ second successive cultivation, percentage removal of heavy metals by Helianthus annuus with MF and OMF, resp., were Cu 32.5 and 41.6; Pb 30.3 and 42.8; and Cd 44.5 and 56.7.  Tithonia diversifolia, similarly, removed, resp., Cu 16.9 and 23.4; Pb 36.9 and 43.7; and Cd 20.1 and 35.1.  Lower percentages were removed in the controls where no fertilizer was applied.  In the shoot of H. annuus with OMF, significantly (p< .05) higher values of 0.27, 1.72, and 0.11 mg kg-1 of Cu, Pb, and Cd, resp., were removed and stored at second cultivation as against 0.21, 3.39 and 0.08 mg kg-1 in the shoot of T diversifolia.  Lower values of Cu, Pb, and Cd were removed with MF, and also at first cultivation with OMF and MF.  This study therefore recommends the use of sunflower plants, whether hybrids or wild-types along with the application of OMF for the effective remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals, particularly in tropical climate.

2) To increase the efficiency of photosynthate translocations towards sink, an attempt was made with growth retardants to enhance the yield in sunflower.  The expt. was conducted with mepiquat chloride, maleic hydrazide, cycocel and TIBA at different concns.  Among the treatments mepiquat chloride at 2000 ppm recorded significant differences on morphol., growth and yield parameters as compared to other treatments.  Plant height decreased significantly with the foliar spray of mepiquat chloride at 2000 ppm.  The max. increase in no. of leaves, total dry wt., leaf area index, leaf area duration and relative growth rate was also obsd. with mepiquat chloride.  Increase in bio-chem. activities viz., chlorophyll, total sugars and phenols content also differed significantly.  Similar effect was also recorded with respect to yield and yield attributes and max. B: C ratio.

3) Way of pollination in sunflower is allogamy and therefore the presence of insects is essential for successful prodn.  Trial material was consisting of six sunflower hybrids that were grown on majority of sunflower's fields in Croatia.  Trial was conducted on trial-field situated in Knezevi Vinogradi (Baranja region).  Honey bees were transported in Langstroth-Rooth (LR) beehives to the trial-field; three days before sunflower's blooming.  Impact of honey bee on selection and prodn. traits of sunflower was expressed as a difference between results gained by free pollination and results under the condition of isolation.  The most important pollinator of sunflower is a honey bee.  Weather conditions (air temp., relative air humidity and rainfalls) considerably influenced activities of honey bees during sunflower blooming.  Honey bees were mostly active during the days without rain, at air temp. from 23 to 26 °C and relative air humidity from 65 to 75 %.  The most attractive hybrid for honey bee was hybrid H4.  Presence of pollinators resulted in improvement of selection and prodn. traits of sunflower: no. of flowers per head, no. of full up field grains per head, percentage of pollination, 1000 kernel wt., hectolitre mass, oil content and oil yield.  Considerable economic rationale was detd. for the introduction of pollination with honey bee in agriculture practice.

Nota de alcance (en)

This cheerful looking plant is one of the most useful ones ever, and it was cultivated in North America long before the arrival of Europeans. Native Americans made root tea to treat various lung problems, rheumatism, spider bites, and gastrointestinal worms. The seeds were, and still are widely used as a source of food and oil. Among other things, sunflower oil was a lubricating laxative. The plant was useful as a tobacco and coffee substitute, to control flies, and to make cordage. Yellow dye was made from the petals.

Part used::
Roots, Seeds

Origin:
America

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937, p. 64.

2) Fitoterapia : vademecum de prescripcion: plantas medicinales. 3ª. ed. Barcelona : Masson, 1999, p. 270.

3) TIMME, Ruth E.; SIMPSON, Beryl B.; LINDER, C. Randal. High-resolution phylogeny for Helianthus (Asteraceae) using the 18S-26S ribosomal DNA external transcribed spacer. American Journal of Botany. 2007, vol.94, nº11, p.1837-1852.
 
4) ADEWOLE, M. B.; SRIDHAR, M. K. C.; ADEOYE, G. O. Removal of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Effluents from a Paint Industry Using Helianthus annuus L. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) as Influenced by Fertilizer Applications.  Bioremediation Journal. 2010, vol.14, nº4, p.169-179.
 
5) DODDAMANI, M. B.; et al.  Effect of growth regulators on physiological and bio-chemical traits and yield in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Environment and Ecology. 2010, vol.28, nº1B, p.697-702.
 
6) PUSKADIJA, Zlatko; et al. Influence of biotic and abiotic environmental conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grain yield. Cereal Research Communications. 2009, vol.37(Suppl.), p.105-108.
 
7) Hull, Kathleen; Photog. Hull, Meredith /Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

Helianthus annuus L
Término aceptado: 29-Ago-2007