Hedera helix L

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PARTE UTILIZADA: Hojas, frutos. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA: Vulnerario, purgante. COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA: Hojas: flavonoides (rutósido, rutinósido), saponinas (hederina, hederacósidoA, hederagenina, glucopiranosil-hederagenina, caulósido F), ácidos polifenólicos (cafeico, clorogénico). Tronco: gomorresina (fluye naturalmente o a través de incisiones), trzas de falcarinona (cetona poliacetilénica) y saponinas. Frutos: saponinas (mayoritariamente hederina), ácido hederotánico, aceite esencial.


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Hedera L., the ivy genus, comprises approximately 16 taxa distributed throughout Europe, North Africa, Macaronesia, and Asia. Phylogenetic relationships within Hedera were examined using chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and noncoding sequence data. The cpDNA data were compared with the published nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data. Phylogenetic incongruence between the two data sets is evident, with no identical clades shared between the topologies. Three centers of diversification for Hedera are hypothesized: Europe, Western Asia, and the Macaronesian region, with allopolyploidization playing a major part in the evolution of Hedera. The maternal parents of the polyploid species H. hibernica, H. iberica, and H. pastuchovii are identified on the basis of the comparison of the chloroplast DNA phylogeny and the ITS topology. The diploid H. helix is supported as the maternal parent of the tetraploid H. hibernica. The comparison of the cpDNA and the ITS phylogenies also indicates that H. canariensis was the diploid maternal ancestor that hybridized with H. hibernica, resulting in the formation of H. iberica. The maternal parent of the hexaploid H. pastuchovii is perhaps H. nepalensis var. sinensis. Diversification of taxa in each region is relatively recent, as indicated by relatively low levels of sequence divergence. 

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A high-performance capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for obtaining electropherograms of various exts. and the com. formulation (fingerprints) of Hedera helix L used in Argentina as a cough's treatment.  Also, a capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the search, identification and detn. of some possible adulterants.  These likely adulterants are common synthetic drugs used in respiratory diseases (antitussive, decongestant and bronchodilator agents).  Under optimum conditions, the analytes (ephedrine, codeine, diphenhydramine and constituents of H. helix formulations) were sepd. within less than 10 min in 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9.0).  The present procedure was validated with respect to selectivity, linearity range, limits of detection and quantification, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), soln. stability and accuracy; the results obtained were satisfactory.  Good linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude and detection limits (S/N = 3) were better than 1.2 mg ml-1 for all analytes.  The CE methodol. was successfully applied to the search and subsequent detn. of ephedrine, codeine and diphenhydramine in H. helix exts. and its phytopharmaceutical products.

 (Hedera helix L., Araliaceae), is an evergreen medicinal and ornamental plant.  Depending on leaf polymorphism different shaped ivy leaves were extd. and subsequently analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liq. chromatog. (RP-HPLC).  Quant. detn. of its most prominent saponins hederacoside C (1) and a-hederin (2) from different ivy leaf exts. were detected, validated and optimized for quick profiling.  The linearity of response, repeatability and reproducibility of the applied RP-HPLC method are reported.

We report one fatal case of asphyxia caused by leaves of common ivy.  Macroscopic examn. of the corpse during the autopsy disclosed an incredible quantity of leaves of Hedera helix in the mouth and throat of the decedent.  In order to rule out the possibility of poisoning by the toxic saponins contained in the plant, we have developed an efficient LC[ndahs]EI/MS[ndahs]MS assay of hederacoside C, a[ndahs]hederin, and hederagenin in biol. fluids and plant material.  Sample cleanup involved solid-phase extn. of the toxins on C18 cartridges followed by LC anal. under reversed-phase conditions in the gradient elution mode.  Solute identification was performed using full scan MS[ndahs]MS spectrum of the analytes.  Oleandrine was used as internal std.  Under these conditions, saponins in powd. dried leaves of Hedera helix were measured at a concn. of 21.83 mg/g for hederacoside C, 0.41 mg/g for a-hederin and 0.02 mg/g for hederagenin.  No toxin was detected in cardiac blood, femoral blood, or urine of the deceased, but hederacoside C was quantitated at 857 ng/mL in the gastric juice.  These findings led us to conclude that the man committed suicide and that the death was caused by suffocation by leaves of common ivy.  (c) 2003 Preston Publications.

Nota bibliográfica

1) GONZALEZ, Matías ; LOMBARDO, Atilio ; VALLARINO, Aida. Plantas de la medicina vulgar del Uruguay. Montevideo : Talleres Gráficos, 1937.

2) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998.

3) ACKERFIELD, J.; WEN, J. Evolution of Hedera (the ivy genus, Araliaceae): Insights from chloroplast DNA data. International Journal of Plant Sciences . 2003, vol.164, nº4, p.593-602 .
4) CIANCHINO, V., et al.  Fingerprint analysis and synthetic adulterant search in Hedera helix formulations by capillary electrophoresis. Pharmazie . 2007, vol.62, nº4, p.262-265.
5) DEMIRCI, B., et al. HPLC profiling and quantification of active principles in leaves of Hedera helix L. Pharmazie . 2004, vol.59, nº10, p.770-774.
6) GAILLARD, Yvan, et al. CASE REPORT: An Unusual Case of Death: Suffocation Caused by Leaves of Common Ivy (Hedera helix). Detection of Hederacoside C, a-Hederin, and Hederagenin by LC-EI/MS-MS. Journal of Analytical Toxicology . 2003, vol.27, nº4, p.257-262.

Hedera helix L
Término aceptado: 29-Ago-2007